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Assessing the relationships between Johnson’s attitudes toward history and historical writing and British historiographical conditions during the first half of the eighteenth century can offer useful perspectives on his sometimes contradictory views. For Johnson, many of the problems in contemporary British historiography, ranging from the ubiquity of inadequate compilations to the strikingly overt politicization of all historical writing at the time, involved questions of authorial control. To enlarge the truncated narratives and expand the scope of the kinds of histories Johnson saw being written by his contemporaries, he turned to forms of social and cultural history, along with parahistorical genres such as memoir and biography, in order to engage the increased readership for historical writing during the period. Although Johnson’s thought characteristically generalizes, his negativity about historical writing can often be understood in more specific terms, as reactions to the contemporary situation in British historiography.
This article traces the origins and developments of Chinese studies in Austria. In addition to factors and institutions that were instrumental in the development of these studies, the lives and works of individuals important to this development are revisited, starting with brief remarks on the scholarly interest in China in eighteenth century Austria and on early efforts to obtain Chinese books and Chinese printing types in the nineteenth century. The achievements of individual scholars are examined against the backdrop of their institutional affiliations and their experiences, if any, in China. In addition, the reasons for the delayed institutionalization of Sinological studies at university level are highlighted.
This chapter reconstructs Heidegger’s 1955–56 interpretation of the principle of reason as a principle that resonates or sounds variously in the history of philosophy. The principle is first fully formulated by Leibniz as the principle of sufficient reason, which states that there is no true fact or proposition without sufficient reason for it being so and not otherwise. Heidegger takes Leibniz’s principle of sufficient reason to be a historically specific version of the principle of reason, which is a fundamental ontological principle holding that nothing is without a reason or ground, and so that being is ground/reason. Heidegger hears this association between being and ground resonating in the ancient Greek concept of logos, which is taken up but distorted by the Romans in the concept of ratio. From there, the ontological principle develops into the principle articulated by Leibniz and comes to express the distinctive commitments of modern philosophy and technology. While Heidegger’s historical story is not entirely plausible and contains significant omissions, attempting to reconstruct it reveals why this purported history of the principle of reason is relevant to Heidegger’s broader ontological project.
This article examines how Kant’s conceptualizations of natural history and teleological judgement shape his understanding of human difference and race. I argue that the teleological framework encasing Kant’s racial theory implies constraints on the capacity of non-whites to make moral progress. While commentators tend to approach Kant’s racial theory in relation to his political theory, his late-life cosmopolitanism, and his treatments (or non-treatments) of colonialism, empire and slavery, the problem I focus on here is that race is itself only intelligible in relation to a teleological natural history limiting certain races’ capacities to engage in humanity’s moral vocation.
Sayyid Ghulam Husain Khan Tabataba’i (b. 1727) is best known as the author of the most comprehensive Persian history of eighteenth century India – the Siyar-ul-muta’akhkhirin. This chapter situates Ghulam Husain’s well-known history in the context his much less well-known political career as a late Mughal official and landholder (jagirdar). It argues that this history, sometimes read as a precociously ‘anti-colonial’ text, also constituted a kind of petition of appeal, a form of legal self-representation, designed both to defend Ghulam Husain’s family landholdings (jagirs) in Bihar as a form of hereditary property, and more broadly to persuade the East India Company government to restore the once-great Mughal system of intizam, or proper order, including Mughal practices of responsive and consultative rulership.Ghulam Husain’s history gives a petitioner’s-eye view of the Company state, showing how state-oriented late Mughal elites turned to the Company government after the destruction of the nawabi regime in an effort to secure their rights and status – drawing on the historical memory and documentary record of Mughal practices of legal entitlement.
India is a land of enormous diversity. Cross-cultural influences are everywhere in evidence, in the food people eat, the clothes they wear, and in the places they worship. This was ever the case, and at no time more so than in the India that existed from 1200 to 1750, before the European intervention. In this absorbing and richly illustrated second edition, the authors take the reader on a journey across the political, economic, religious, and cultural landscapes of India from the Ghurid conquests and the Delhi Sultanate, through the rise and fall of the southern kingdom of Vijayanagara and their successors, to the peripheries of empire, and finally, to the great court of the Mughals. This was a time of conquest and consolidation, when Muslims and Hindus came together to create a literary, material, and visual culture which was uniquely their own and which still resonates in today’s India.
This volume is the first to consider the golden century of Gothic ivory sculpture (1230-1330) in its material, theological, and artistic contexts. Providing a range of new sources and interpretations, Sarah Guérin charts the progressive development and deepening of material resonances expressed in these small-scale carvings. Guérin traces the journey of ivory tusks, from the intercontinental trade routes that delivered ivory tusks to northern Europe, to the workbenches of specialist artisans in medieval Paris, and, ultimately, the altars and private chapels in which these objects were venerated. She also studies the rich social lives and uses of a diverse range of art works fashioned from ivory, including standalone statuettes, diptychs, tabernacles, and altarpieces. Offering new insights into the resonances that ivory sculpture held for their makers and viewers, Guérin's study contributes to our understanding of the history of materials, craft, and later medieval devotional practices.
The Introduction describes the kinds of masculinism and forums for manhood in Milton's works that the book will study. Outlining the chapters and framing the theory and cultural history underlying the book, the Introduction places its study of Milton's masculinity in current scholarly conversations on gender, queer theory, critical race theory, and Milton's major works. Using "Lycidas" and Milton's sonnets as frames, the Introduction shows how Milton makes his own manliness.
India is a land of enormous diversity. Cross-cultural influences are everywhere in evidence, in the food people eat, the clothes they wear, and in the places they worship. This was ever the case, and at no time more so than in the India that existed from c. 1200 to 1750, before European intervention. In this thoughtfully revised and updated second edition, readers are taken on a richly illustrated journey across the political, economic, religious, and cultural landscapes of India – from the Ghurid conquest and the Delhi Sultanate, through the rise and fall of the southern kingdom of Vijayanagara and their successors, to the peripheries of empire, to the great court of the Mughals. This was a time of conquest and consolidation, when Muslims and Hindus came together to create a literary, material, and visual culture which was uniquely their own and which still resonates today.
Transhistorical psychiatry defends that a psychic alteration can be interpreted as a cultural, historical and personal construction, subject to incessant variations.
A journey through the history of the disorder and the successive pathomorphoses it has undergone could provide us with a better understanding of it and explain the reason for the epidemiological trend towards a decrease in its diagnosis; and bring us closer to a universal definition of the phenomenon.
The word hysteria and all its subsequent meanings, not only contain a particular conception of the pathology, but also reflect its different forms of presentation in specific periods of time. Hysteria is presented as a voluble material that can take on any form: from the wandering womb theory of classical Greece to the demonic possessions of the Middle Ages; from the neurological degeneration of Charcot (1825-1893) to the conversion and dissociation of Freud (1856-1939). With the entry of the 20th century, its dramatic clinic has been progressively overshadowed by somatoform disorders and emerging functional somatic syndromes. Today, it is practically unrecognisable and very difficult to diagnose, to the point of having disappeared as a term from the official classifications of our time.
Hysteria is an entity that has not always been the same, neither in its conception nor in its manifestations. Depending on the socio-cultural context in which it is framed, it will be interpreted and expressed in different ways.
Modern views on thalamus structure and function are the outcome of a long process of scientific discovery that started centuries ago and is still ongoing. As for other brain systems, strides along this path followed, to a large extent, from the introduction of new research tools capable of providing increasingly accurate delineations of neuronal connections and functional properties. These discoveries, in turn, expanded or corrected previous theories about thalamus operation and the contributions of the thalamus to behavior. Here, I summarize the key steps of this process, from the early descriptions of macroscopic anatomy and lesion effects through electrophysiological, neurochemical, and pathway-tracing studies to current connectomic, functional, and transcriptome investigations at the single-cell and brain-wide level.
Chapter 2 provides a historical look at the processes and events that shaped local perceptions of gender and development. Development invoked a variety of memories, emotions, and perspectives for the residents of Nampula. I group these understandings around three themes: development as freedom and liberty; development in terms of citizen–state relations; and development as ‘projects’. While people were generally positive about the increased stability and freedom they experienced after the civil war, they were more sceptical of development projects, which increased exponentially in the rebuilding years following the Rome General Peace Accords in 1992. People in rural Nampula interpreted the handpump within a history of colonial, state-led, and neoliberal approaches that primarily served the interests of domestic and international elites and disrupted rural social relations and livelihoods. Throughout the book, the discourses that animate development projects are in tension with those that circulate within the villages of Nampula.
Enigmas make for compelling puzzles because they inspire hope that fresh insights may be found through revisiting an enduring problem from a unique angle or engaging with diverse perspectives. This introduction briefly discusses the theme of 'enigmas' and their prominence across different disciplines and throughout time. Enigmas resonate with the processes and methodologies of research practices across the arts, sciences, and humanities, as is clear from the range of topics covered in the volume's eight chapters. Each of the chapters then receives a short introduction detailing the author's topic and main argument. Although some enigmas can, at first glance, seem to pose insurmountable challenges to humanity, the overall impression provided by this volume is one of hope. Even problems which initially appear overwhelming can be scrutinised, interpreted, and ultimately resolved.
Australian histories of twentieth-century criminal justice systems have been under-researched. This chapter offers a corrective, outlining the changing character and focus of twentieth-century century criminal justice institutions and pointing their on-going effects today. Major changes included a vast expansion of police power and technological capacity, and an investigative focus on individual criminal’s identities, history and rehabilitative potential. The criminal trial was transformed by procedural changes that led to an extraordinary expansion of guilty pleas, so much so that trials now form a very small part of the justice process. The focus of higher courts shifted to sentencing determinations, where imprisonment or alternatives were weighed up by judges after receiving sentencing submissions of growing complexity. Despite constant evidence against its effectiveness, the twentieth century cemented the prison as a major institution of state power. Changes meant victims of crime had less legal power and standing, although the justice system continued to rely substantially on victim reports to respond to crime.
In one of the splendid essays brought together in his Personality in Politics, published just after World War II, British politician and civil servant Sir Arthur Salter speculates about why the USA failed to ratify the League of Nations Covenant, the brainchild of US President Woodrow Wilson. First, Sir Arthur suggests, Senator Henry Cabot Lodge, a one-time supporter of the idea behind the League, was embroiled in “bitter personal enmity” with Wilson, for reasons that have long remained unclear. Sir Arthur suggests that Lodge’s support could have made a decisive difference: it would most likely have resulted in further support by seven more senators, which would have been enough to secure the required two-thirds majority in the US Senate. But the personal relationship between Lodge and Wilson was such that this never happened.
One of the earliest studies that focused on functioning in the Caribbean people was recorded in Edith Clarke’s book first published in 1957. This study used direct and participant observations in multiple Jamaican communities. Although this and earlier studies did not use standard psychological testing, they were among some of the first efforts to use systematic methods to observe functioning in Caribbean people. Since the mid-twentieth century, multiple studies conducted in the region have used tests and measures designed by researchers of European heritage for people of similar backgrounds who reside primarily from North America and Europe. Equally important is that such assessment tools are used in clinical as well as industrial and organizational contexts. While these tools have provided important information on Caribbean people’s functioning, their lack of attention to reliability and validity concerns for the Caribbean populations have made their findings somewhat questionable. This chapter addresses the historical use of psychological assessment in practice and research throughout the Caribbean region. Although to a lesser extent, it also focuses on contemporary use of psychological assessment tools in the Caribbean context.
Spain and Portugal share the territory of the Iberian Peninsula at the southwestern end of the European continent. They are two countries with remarkable similarities but also with marked peculiarities of their own. They form two of the oldest states in Europe and both experienced a period of splendor and glory during the fifteenth to sixteenth centuries, as a result of the great maritime expeditions undertaken, and the vast territories first explored by European countries. Both Spain and Portugal suffered an extended period of decline from the eighteenth century onwards, from which they have only been able to recover in the second half of the twentieth century. This historical evolution has strongly conditioned, as it could not be otherwise, the development of economic and scientific activities in both countries, which logically also applies to the use of psychological assessment instruments. This chapter briefly describes the evolution of psychological assessment techniques in Spain and Portugal, following a chronological order, paying greater attention to the early days, which are generally less well known, and identifying the most outstanding milestones or those that have had the greatest impact in the scientific field and in professional practice.
This chapter sets out to provide a comparative perspective on seemingly incompatible global agendas and efforts to include all children in the general school system, thus reducing exclusion. With an examination of the international testing culture and the politics of inclusion currently permeating national school reforms, this chapter intends to raise a critical and constructive discussion of these movements, which appear to support one another, yet simultaneously offer profound contradictions. The chapter will include a brief history of psychological testing in Central Africa and identify types of psychological tests in use in Central Africa as well as the issues and problems that arise when making use of such psychological tests at both national and local levels. It will shed light on new possibilities for educational improvements in global and local contexts.
Relatively speaking, the history of psychological testing in North America is brief but dense. Given the similarities in language and culture of Canada and the United States, it is not surprising that many events in the history of psychological testing were shared by the two countries. Progress in academic and professional realms readily crosses the border, helping to sustain a stable and mutually beneficial relationship. This chapter begins by describing milestone events in the shared history of these two countries that marked turning points in the development of instruments and testing practices. Activities by European scholars laid the foundation for further developments in North America. These activities are reviewed first, followed by discussions of events concerning the North American history of intellectual assessment, personality testing, and psychological testing used in employment contexts. Next, major impacts of the history of psychological testing in North American are described to demonstrate how they have helped to shape psychological testing in the larger international sphere.
Despite recent advances, key events in snake evolution have remained difficult to resolve, including their position in the squamate tree and several ingroup relationships. Comparative genomics has unrealised potential for phylogenetic inference and may advance understanding of snake evolution. This chapter reviews the history of snake molecular phylogenetics up to the current genomics revolution. This work has often corroborated phylogenetic inferences from morphology but also discovered relationships not previously considered or supported. We discuss properties of snake nuclear genomes, considering their potential for phylogenetic inference. Using data from 30 available squamate genomes, we provide preliminary examples applying both cumulative and non-cumulative frequency coding to genome size, GC content, and 14 repetitive element characteristics. Cumulative frequency coding outperforms non-cumulative coding and recovers most, but not all, well-known snake clades. We describe how the relationships of some snake lineages remains poorly supported despite their inclusion in large genomic-scale datasets, and suggest possible avenues of future research using comparative genomics.