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Hydropower is the largest source of renewable energy in the world; it is expected at least to double by 2050. This chapter reviews how benefits from hydropower can be maximised while reducing environmental and social impacts. The scope for expansion of hydropower is considerable, but adverse environmental and social impacts need to be managed. Climate change is impacting hydro generation through changed snow melts and river flows, greater evaporation and more frequent extreme events, such as flooding and droughts. Hydropower infrastructure needs to have margins to cope with extreme events and adapt to changing conditions. Relicensing at specified intervals can provide a framework for renovation, removal or changes to minimise impacts and maximise benefits of dams. Planning of dams needs to be undertaken on a whole-of-river-basin scale . The World Commission on Dams (2000) recommended priorities for more sustainable development. The Hydropower Sustainability Assessment Protocol is one codification of better hydropower development practices. Hydropower is important in providing storage and firming capacity to complement intermittent generation from solar and wind generators.
Diets high in red and processed meat (RPM) contribute substantially to environmental degradation, greenhouse gas emissions and the global burden of chronic disease. High-profile reports have called for significant global RPM reduction, especially in high-income settings. Despite this, policy attention and political priority for the issue are low.
The study used a theoretically guided framing analysis to identify frames used by various interest groups in relation to reducing RPM in online news media articles published in the months around the release of four high-profile reports by authoritative organisations that included a focus on the impacts of high RPM production and/or consumption.
Four major RPM producing and consuming countries – USA, United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand.
Hundred and fifty news media articles were included. Articles reported the views of academics, policymakers, industry representatives and the article authors themselves. RPM reduction was remarkably polarising. Industry frequently framed RPM reduction as part of a ‘Vegan Agenda’ or as advocated by an elite minority. Reducing RPM was also depicted as an infringement on personal choice and traditional values. Many interest groups attempted to discredit the reports by citing a lack of consensus on the evidence, or that only certain forms of farming and processing were harmful. Academics and nutrition experts were more likely to be cited in articles that were aligned with the findings of the reports.
The polarisation of RPM reduction has led to a binary conflict between pro- and anti-meat reduction actors. This division may diminish the extent to which political leaders will prioritise this in policy agendas. Using nuanced and context-dependent messaging could ensure the narratives around meat are less conflicting and more effective in addressing health and environmental harms associated with RPM.
Julia Lee identifies temporal, spatial, and affective innovation in 21st century transpacific fiction. Locating formally innovative contemporary Asian American writing in the post-1965 contexts of migration, global economies of labor, environmental anxiety, language difference, and racialized violence, Lee shows how writers have represented new technologies of immediate communication across oceanic flows of migrants, commodities, information, and waste in disjointed, parallel, and non-sequential narrative structures. Childhood trauma lingers across time and geography in a story about a Filipino nurse by Mia Alvar, while novels by Min Jin Lee, Ruth Ozeki, and Thi Bui layer Asian and American modernities, postmodernities, and contemporary present-tenses.
Mark Goble uses the concept of convergence to explore the implications of formal and temporal compression, economy, and slowness in an age of unprecedented expansion and speedup. Richard McGuire’s Here presents an extreme example of spatial restriction and temporal expansion, while novels by Ruth Ozeki, Richard Powers, and William Gibson juxtapose ecological, scientific, technological, and theological timespans to human ones in ways that echo postmodern and science fiction precursors, but with very different aims and warnings in mind for denizens of the Anthropocene.
Chapter 1 serves as an introduction to the book. It sets the scene by providing fundamental background information on the issues explored in the book. It then situates the present study within the existing literature. In so doing, it identifies the novel research questions, methodology, and contribution to debates in international law and beyond. It introduces key concepts that will be further discussed in the book, notably the idea of ‘new wars’ and its relationship to the environment. Further, it outlines two theories that provide the foundations and inform the critique developed in the book. The first is Rob Nixon’s concept of slow violence and the second is the notion of structural violence, taken from Johan Galtung and adapted to the present issues. Lastly, it offers an overview of arguments made in subsequent chapters.
The chapter introduces some key terms used throughout the book before offering an outline of the overall argument in favour of the environmental minimum: it is intended to serve both as a primer and a convenient reference point for the following chapters. The core contribution of the environmental minimum is that it translates general and abstract committments to human rights and environmental protection into specific and practical measures to protect the environment. The normative argument for the environmental minimum framework centres on its consistency and compatibility with the normative claims of environmental human rights, and its alignment with fundamental legal principles. What renders the environmental minimum preferable to other conceivable incarnations of environmental human rights is its practical and incremental approach. Crucially, the framework only becomes operational if rightsholders succeed in establishing a specific risk to a human right under an existing protection regime. Thus, the environmental minimum is in principle compatible with the doctrinal position adopted under the examined international and domestic protection regimes, most notably the ECHR.
The chapter argues that a commitment to human rights necessarily entails basic environmental protection duties as a matter of political morality. This is because egregious forms of environmental harm critically undermine the fundamental values that underpin human rights, chiefly human dignity and autonomy. Human rights must therefore contain a sub-category of protections which we can conceptualise as environmental human rights. The human interests that environmental human rights protect are the environmental conditions necessary for the preservation and flourishing of human life, namely clean water, food, air, and soil within a functioning ecosystem that includes diverse species of plants and wildlife. Those who challenge these rights as vague overlook the significant room for agreement in the pursuit of a comprehensive and universal notion of a ‘sound’ environment. Meanwhile, converns over potential conflicts with other rights are overstated, because balancing of competing interests is a pervasive and well-established feature of human rights law and contemporary environmental regulations are already being challenged on the basis of competing rights, for instance to property.
The COVID-19 pandemic witnessed extreme forms of biopolitics, as well as the urgency to reconsider our relationship with the planet. Although biopolitics draws attention to the technologies of domination by public authorities, we cast the concepts of bios and politics in the wider framework of nonviolence. In this framework, bios is the set of practices (praxis) of ordinary citizens. And politics is power created by harm reduction, or actions in daily life that testimony the desire not to harm others or the planet. We leverage nonviolence at three levels, scaling up from the individual to social behaviour and to the planet. The first level concerns nonviolence as self-sufferance and as praxis to claim back the sovereignty of the body. In the second level, nonviolence is collective mobilization – building social capital, self-governance, and solidarity. The third level provides the vision of a diverse ecological citizenship with a sustainable relationship between human beings and the planet.
Pervasive environmental harm that disproportionately impacts vulnerable members of society is left largely unregulated across the globe despite existing legal commitments to human rights and environmental protection in many states. To address this shortcoming, Stefan Theil proposes a new normative framework for environmental protection through human rights law. In clear and accessible prose, he demonstrates how such a human rights-based approach can strengthen environmental protection without requiring radical departures from established protection regimes and legal principles. The environmental minimum developed in the book translates the general and abstract commitments of states into specific and practical measures that protect the environment. The framework develops the doctrine of international, regional, and domestic courts, analysed through an innovative approach that improves contextual awareness. This book is thus a valuable resource for lawyers, social scientists, political theorists, environmental and human rights advocates.
This paper traces France’s role in the Antarctic from 1840, when explorer Jules Dumont d’Urville discovered the slice of the white continent he named Terre Adélie, to the present day. Since World War II, Terre Adélie has been the site of a host of performances of sovereignty: the French have built bases, drawn maps, conducted scientific investigations and erected plaques. But France’s commitment to Terre Adélie has been tested and has fallen into crisis several times. The history of France in Antarctica is a tale of ambition, ambivalence, trade-offs and political strategy. This paper aims to elucidate this story, focusing on the concept of sovereignty and the nexus of scientific and political interests. I argue that France’s relationship with the Antarctic has been characterised by continual tension, by peaks and troughs and by brinkmanship on the part of actors with their own stakes. While there is broad agreement that Terre Adélie serves a fundamental national interest, I show that France’s ambitions on the white continent are far from decided. With its focus on France, which has largely been left out of the growing body of literature on the Antarctic, this paper contributes to building a robust historical understanding of Antarctic claims.
The inspiration for this volume comes from the work of its dedicatee, Brent D. Shaw, who is one of the most original and wide-ranging historians of the ancient world of the last half-century and continues to open up exciting new fields for exploration. Each of the distinguished contributors has produced a cutting-edge exploration of a topic in the history and culture of the Roman Empire dealing with a subject on which Professor Shaw has contributed valuable work. Three major themes extend across the volume as a whole. First, the ways in which the Roman world represented an intricate web of connections even while many people's lives remained fragmented and local. Second, the ways in which the peculiar Roman space promoted religious competition in a sophisticated marketplace for practices and beliefs, with Christianity being a major benefactor. Finally, the varying forms of violence which were endemic within and between communities.
Smart healthcare monitoring allows detecting health conditions using Big Data, namely aggregated data concerning physiological and behavioral parameters. The continuous collection of data from smart-devices performed by the Ecological Momentary Assessment approach represents a promising application of Big Data.
This preliminary study was aimed at developing a research protocol focused on the use of Big Data in evaluating the impact of urban environment, affected by a variety of potentially damaging anthropogenic actions, on illness relapses in Bipolar Disorders (BD).
This pilot study was designed by researchers from Departments of Psychiatry and Engineering (CIRIAF), University of Perugia. Environmental, physiological, and behavioral parameters and smart-devices aimed at collecting Big Data were identified. Subjects aged 18-65, affected by BD in current euthymic state referring to the University/General Hospital of Perugia will be recruited.
Subjects will undergo a baseline visit and three monitoring visits during one year. Wearable devices will be provided for collecting data about environmental and physiological parameters. Behavioral data will be collected through smartphone accelerometers, GPS, and overall smartphone use. Big data will be stored into an online platform that will provide real-time feedback concerning the recorded variables. Clinical information concerning BD relapses will be collected. Machine learning techniques, integrated to deterministic analysis of urban environmental conditions, will be used to create possible predictive models for BD relapses.
The present project could allow the creation of a new operative platform for a better health management system correlating real-time Big Data to specific clinical features of BD.
Tunisian revolution has been a major upheavel in the tunisian history and has brought many political, social and economic changes. Little were found about the revolution’s potential impact on the psychiatric demand.
Compare the clinical profile of all the new consultants in the out ward psychiatry department before and after the revolution.
The study had a retrospective descriptive design including all the new consultants in the outpatient psychiatry department in the general hospital Fattouma Bourguiba in Monastir, Tunisia before (during 2007) and after (during 2016) the revolution. We used a pre-established questionnaire including sociodemographic and clinical data.
After the revolution, an increase in the number of new patients (p<10-3) 438 to 451 were found. In 2016, there were more unemployed consultants(p=0.004), having criminal record (p=0.01) and having a problematic substance use (p<10-3). An increase also concerned patients consulting for anxiety(p=0.002) and suicidal ideation (p=0.022). Considering the clinical diagnosis, there were also a significant increase regarding anxiety disorders (p=0.001) and mood disorders (p=0.011) essentially major depressive disorder (p=0.002). Although a significant decrease concerned somatoform disorder (p<10-3).
Our study showed a change in the profile of consultants after the Tunisian revolution. A study in the general population could find specific etiological factors. Thus highlight the importance of implementing preventive measures in general population in crisis’ times.
Chapter 9 provides an environmental history of the Copperbelt and the polluting effects of mining. It explains how mine companies’ control of land and official assumptions about urban society rendered the region’s widespread agricultural activities as illegitimate and ‘out of place’. It explains why many Copperbelt residents, particularly women, farmed, both as an everyday economic activity and, increasingly over time, as a response to hardship and economic crisis. It explores how pollution, particularly the poisoning of air and water with sulphur dioxide emissions, was ubiquitous yet ‘invisible’ in the minds of policy-makers, companies and – to a considerable extent – Copperbelt residents themselves. The chapter then explains how environmental impact assessment by companies, states and international and local NGOs raised local awareness of pollution, making it a central subject of community mobilisation in the early twentieth century, even as newly privatised mining companies ‘offshored’ responsibility for the legacy of historical pollution to poorly resourced states.
Our current ecological crises compel us not only to understand how contemporary media shapes our conceptions of human relationships with the environment, but also to examine the historical genealogies of such perspectives. Written during the onset of the Little Ice Age in Britain, Middle English romances provide a fascinating window into the worldviews of popular vernacular literature (and its audiences) at the close of the Middle Ages. Andrew M. Richmond shows how literary conventions of romances shaped and were in turn influenced by contemporary perspectives on the natural world. These popular texts also reveal widespread concern regarding the damaging effects of human actions and climate change. The natural world was a constant presence in the writing, thoughts, and lives of the audiences and authors of medieval English romance – and these close readings reveal that our environmental concerns go back further in our history and culture than we think.
My introduction situates the study by defining “landscape” within the genre of Middle English popular romance, examines the current critical conversation regarding medieval conceptions of the environment, and places late medieval romances in the context of the burgeoning Little Ice Age. It concludes with a précis of the following study.
This chapter introduces the reader to learning environments in early childhood settings. It explores different aspects of learning environments, including the physical environment, design considerations, risky play, resources and materials, and fostering responsibility for the environment. In doing so, it explores the notion that what an early childhood teacher does in the environment is a mode of scholarship. The scholarship of teaching in early childhood education and care involves systematic inquiry into children’s learning to inform educational practice. The teacher makes decisions about the construction of the learning environment – that is, the enactment of curriculum grounded in children’s learning interests – within the context of a socially just early learning environment. Reflective practice encourages us to inquire why the learning environment is constructed in the way it is, and what the environment’s construction says about what is expected to happen in that space and place. Your own identity – your values, motivations, roles and definitions – will influence your actions or the ways in which you inhabit places, and is an important starting point for inquiring about the early learning environment you intend to co-create with young children.
The work of Walter Scott, one of the most globally influential authors of the nineteenth century, provides us with a unique narrative of the changing ecologies of Scotland over several centuries and writes this narrative into the history of environmental literature. Farmed environments, mountains, moors and forests along with rivers, shorelines, islands and oceans are explored, situating Scott's writing about shared human and nonhuman environments in the context of the emerging Anthropocene. Susan Oliver attends to changes and losses acting in counterpoint to the narratives of 'improvement' that underpin modernization in land management. She investigates the imaginative ecologies of folklore and local culture. Each chapter establishes a dialogue between ecocritical theory and Scott as storyteller of social history. This is a book that shows how Scott challenged conventional assumptions about the permanency of stone and the evanescence of air; it begins with the land and ends by looking at the stars.
Evidence syntheses perform rigorous investigations of the primary literature and they have played a vital role in generating evidence-based recommendations for governments worldwide during the Covid-19 pandemic. However, there has not yet been an attempt to organize them by topic and other characteristics. This study performed a systematic mapping exercise of non-clinical evidence syntheses pertaining to Covid-19.
This study conducted a systematic search on December 5, 2020 across 10 databases and servers: CINAHL (EBSCO Information Services, Ipswich, Massachusetts, United States), Embase (Elsevier, Aalborg, Denmark), Global Health (EBSCO Information Services, Ipswich, Massachusetts, United States), Healthstar (NICHSR and AHA, Bethesda, United States), MEDLINE (NLM, Bethesda, United States), PsychINFO (APA, Washington, DC, United States), Web of Science (Clarivate Analytics, London, UK), Research Square (Research Square, Durham, North Carolina), MEDRxiv (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, New York, United States), and PROSPERO (NIHR, York, United Kingdom). Only full evidence syntheses published in a peer-reviewed journal or preprint server were included.
This study classified all evidence syntheses in the following topics: health service delivery (n = 280), prevention and behavior (n = 201), mental health (n = 140), social epidemiology (n = 31), economy (n = 22), and environment (n = 19). This study provides a comprehensive resource of all evidence syntheses categorized according to topic.
This study proposes the following research priorities: governance, the impact of Covid-19 on different populations, the effectiveness of prevention and control methods across contexts, mental health, and vaccine hesitancy.
Every person on our home planet is affected by a worldwide deluge of man-made chemicals and pollutants - most of which have never been tested for safety. Our chemical emissions are six times larger than our total greenhouse gas emissions. They are in our food, our water, the air we breathe, our homes and workplaces, the things we use each day. This universal poisoning affects our minds, our bodies, our genes, our grandkids, and all life on Earth. Julian Cribb describes the full scale of the chemical catastrophe we have unleashed. He proposes a new Human Right - not to be poisoned. He maps an empowering and hopeful way forward: to rid our planet of these toxins and return Earth to the clean, healthy condition which our forebears enjoyed, and our grandchildren should too.