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In this chapter we discuss the osteology of the primate hindlimb and pelvic girdle of the newborn. This region in newborn hominoids (apes and humans) is discussed based on the literature and illustrated based on museum specimens. Subsequently, the hindlimb skeleton of newborn tarsiers, Old World monkeys, New World monkeys, and strepsirrhines (lemurs and lorises) are described. At birth, the os coxa of all primates is represented by three ossified elements (ilium, pubs, ischium), which are connected at synchondroses centered at the acetabulum. Generally, cercopithecoids, tarsiers, and galagids more frequently have ossified femoral and tibial epiphyses at birth than other primates. In all newborn primates, the talus and calcaneus has commenced ossification. Naviculars have commenced ossification in many strepsirrhines, tarsiers and all known cercopithecoids (but few other anthropoids). Many primate species vary in the number of tarsals ossified at birth. This chapter also includes preliminary histological observations on variations in epiphyseal growth plates of newborn, and on differing rates of early postnatal ossification of the tarsus.
In this chapter we discuss the osteology of the primate forelimb and pectoral girdle from a developmental perspective. The embryonic period of limb development is briefly described. This region in newborn hominoids (apes and humans) is discussed based on the literature and illustrated based on museum specimens. Subsequently, the forelimb skeleton of newborn tarsiers, Old World monkeys, New World monkeys, and strepsirrhines (lemurs and lorises) is described. At birth, the acromion process remains unossified in all primates but the primary center of the corocoid process is ossified in most primates. Haplorrhines generally exhibit better ossified forelimbs (especially at the wrist) than strepsirrhines. Ossification of the forelimb skeleton is most advanced in Old World monkeys and Hylobates compared to all other extant primates except Tarsius. However, ossification rapidly picks up pace postnatally in at least some strepsirrhines (e.g., galagids).
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