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Although economic growth has historically been an engine of prosperity in the United States, recent trends have generated uncertainty regarding the prospects for sustaining such growth. Economists disagree about the relative importance of many factors affecting future growth, including rapid technological advances, immigration, the growth of the financial sector, problems with the educational system, increasing income inequality, an aging population, and large fiscal imbalances that have not been addressed by the political system. This collection of chapters, authored by many of today's leading economists, addresses the prospects for economic growth in the United States over the next few decades. During a time of great economic uncertainty, this book engages with both sides in the debate over economic growth, focusing on policy options that increase the prospects for vigorous economic growth in the future.
Chapter 3 analyzes the demographic makeup and composition of state sex offender registries. The data reject the popular narratives of incomplete registries filled with dangerous individuals. The chapter begins by investigating the widely reported counts of registered individuals from the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children (NCMEC). While NCMEC reports that there are nearly one million registrants nationwide, no true national registry exists to confirm this claim. Further, independent studies indicate that many registrants simply do not live in their listed community – they may be incarcerated, committed, deported, or deceased. Additionally, the data refute common arguments that registries are systematically incomplete with regard to “missing” registrants. The chapter next examines how registries reflect broader racial dynamics. The typical registrant is middle-aged and white. However, registries are disproportionately black, and black registrants are overclassified with respect to recidivism risk. Finally, the chapter dissects the technical and data challenges affecting registries. While intra-registry duplicates plague few jurisdictions, many registries contain individuals present on other states’ registries. This chapter contends that policymakers should account for these deficiencies when considering sex offender policy.
Migraine, including episodic migraine (EM) and chronic migraine (CM), is a common neurological disorder that imparts a substantial health burden.
Understand the characteristics and treatment of EM and CM from a population-based perspective.
This retrospective population-based cross-sectional study utilized administrative data from Alberta. Among those with a migraine diagnostic code, CM and EM were identified by an algorithm and through exclusion, respectively; characteristics and migraine medication use were examined with descriptive statistics.
From 79,076 adults with a migraine diagnostic code, 12,700 met the criteria for CM and 54,686 were considered to have EM. The majority of migraineurs were female, the most common comorbidity was depression, and individuals with CM had more comorbidities than EM. A larger proportion of individuals with CM versus EM were dispensed acute (80.6%: CM; 63.4%: EM) and preventative (58.0%: CM; 28.9%: EM) migraine medications over 1 year. Among those with a dispensation, individuals with CM had more acute (13.6 ± 32.2 vs. 4.6 ± 10.9 [mean ± standard deviation], 95% confidence interval [CI] 7.7-8.3), and preventative (12.6 ± 43.5 vs. 5.0 ± 12.6, 95% CI 6.9-8.4) migraine medication dispensations than EM, over 1-year. Opioids were commonly used in both groups (proportion of individuals dispensed an opioid over 1-year: 53.1%: CM; 25.7%: EM).
Individuals with EM and CM displayed characteristics and medication use patterns consistent with other reports. Application of this algorithm for CM may be a useful and efficient means of identifying subgroups of migraine using routinely collected health data in Canada.
This chapter argues that the weight of teachings in the ICJ varies between works. Some works are cited far more than others. The most-cited writers tend to men from Western countries. The judges frequently justify citations of teachings, by arguing that the teachings of high quality, that the writer is an expert, that the writer holds an official position, or that multiple writers agree. It is plausible to view this as factors that influence the weight of teachings. Explanations for why the judges distinguish between works is that they want to make their opinions authoritative, that they want to save time, and that they want to comply with the ICJ Statute Article 38(1). Finally it is argued that the variations between the weight of teachings shows that authority in international law is established through an informal, collective process.
Chapter 2 depicts the current situation of Muslims in Asante. I briefly summarise the historical developments since the early 2000s and discuss the demographics of the Muslim minority in Asante. I describe zongos as wards of strangers and Muslim communities and narrate the history of one of these wards in detail, thereby introducing Kokote Zongo, the main site of my fieldwork and ethnography, and I offer a bird’s-eye view of its social structure. I conclude the chapter with two accounts of how people in this ward cope and live with poverty. As I argue, the history and social dynamics of these wards matter to the ways in which the people there live their religion.
The predominance of Whiteness, and the corresponding lack of representation of people who are both racialized and minoritized, in the governance of universities is a political issue. We present the results from an intersectional diversity audit of central and senior academic administrators at five Canadian universities: Simon Fraser University, University of British Columbia, University of Toronto, University of Victoria and York University. Our findings indicate that racialized men and women are hitting ceilings in the middle administrative ranks. Conversely, we find a notable overrepresentation of White men and women in the senior administrative ranks. Our analysis suggests that White women, unlike racialized women and men, no longer face serious barriers to representation within these senior ranks. These findings raise concerns about processes of racialization that may impede career progress for some but accelerate it for others. They raise concerns about the politics of who lifts whom into the echelons of academic decision making, which in turn has implications for justice, knowledge and social meanings of competency.
The introductory chapter situates the sociopolitical context in which Muslim Americans find themselves in contemporary America. They appear to be front and center in contemporary American politics, occupying a prominent space in the national discourse. The chapter also introduces who Muslim Americans are and highlights the diversity within the group and emphasizes that intersectionality is important to consider when evaluating the status of Muslim Americans. Next, the chapter argues that Muslim Americans, despite being a religious minority, have been racialized. Finally, the chapter concludes with a plan for the rest of the book.
Introduction: Despite the visibility of the homeless population, there is limited data on the information of this patient population. Point-in-time counts and survey data from selected samples (such as those admitted to emergency shelter) have primarily been used. This literature suggests that this hard-to-reach population has high rates of presentation at emergency departments (EDs), and as such, EDs often become their main point of contact for health and social services. Leveraging this fact and administrative data we construct a crude census of homeless persons within Ontario. We further examine demographic characteristics of patients experiencing homelessness, and compare this data to findings from previous literature. Methods: All routinely collected administrative health data from EDs located within Ontario, Canada from 2010-2017 were analyzed to examine patient characteristics. Individuals experiencing homelessness were identified by a marker that was adopted in 2009 replacing their recorded postal code with an XX designation. s. Aggregating by LHIN, date and week of year, we examine the overall number of patients experiencing homelessness and number by LHIN location and seasonality. Demographic outcomes examined include age and sex. Results: 640,897 visits to the ED over 7 years were made by 39,525 unique individuals experiencing homelessness. Number of ED visits has steadily increased over 10 years in all of Ontario, despite decline in shelter use for individuals. Presentations were concentrated in large urban centres like Toronto, Ottawa and Hamilton. Fewer presentations occur in the spring and summer months and rise in the winter. Male patients presented older and in greater numbers than female patients. The modal female age of presentation is in the 20-24 age category. The modal male age of presentation is in the 25-29 age category. Older male patients were more likely to have multiple presentations. Conclusion: The utilization of administrative health data offers a novel, cost-effective method to measure demographic characteristics of people experiencing homelessness. Identifying characteristics of homeless patients through this method allows for a more complete understanding of the characteristics of a hard-to-reach population, which will allow policy makers to develop appropriate services for this sub-group. Furthermore, through analysis of trends of demographics over time, changes in the homeless population can be tracked in real-time to allow for coordination and implementation of services in a time-sensitive manner.
This chapter focuses on six key areas that are affecting recruitment and retention: (1) technology, (2) social media, (3) big data, (4) HR technology and information systems, (5) globalization, and (6) demographics. It begins with a brief review of changes in each of these areas and how they are affecting work. Then we consider how these same changes are affecting recruitment, recognizing that in the age of the Internet and social media, recruitment is, by definition, global. In a concluding section, we offer research-based suggestions regarding what managers can do to maximize the retention of talented employees that they want to keep.
A defining feature of the contemporary workforce is its diversity. Indeed, changes in worker demographics have spurred substantial scholarship and management practice. In this chapter, we draw from population-based statistics to describe and discuss the nature of change as it refers to gender, race/ethnicity, and age diversity. We further discuss existing data and theory on change in the workforce participation of people from understudied demographic groups such as people with children, multiracial individuals, immigrants, religious minorities, gender and sexual minorities, individuals with disabilities, and socioeconomic status. In so doing, this review prompts important new directions for theory and practice.
To examine demographic and behavioural correlates of frequent consumption of fast food among Australian secondary school students and explore the associations between fast food consumption and social/environmental factors.
Cross-sectional survey using a web-based self-report questionnaire.
Secondary schools across all Australian states and territories.
Students aged 12–17 years participating in the 2012–2013 National Secondary Students’ Diet and Activity survey (n 8392).
Overall, 38 % of students surveyed reported consuming fast food at least weekly. Being male, residing in lower socio-economic areas and metropolitan locations, having more weekly spending money and working at a fast food outlet were all independently associated with consuming fast food once a week or more, as were several unhealthy eating (low vegetable intake and high sugary drink and snack food intake) and leisure (low physical activity and higher commercial television viewing) behaviours and short sleep duration. Frequent fast food consumption and measured weight status were unrelated. Students who agreed they go to fast food outlets with their family and friends were more likely to report consuming fast food at least weekly, as were those who usually ‘upsize’ their fast food meals and believe fast food is good value for money.
These results suggest that frequent fast food consumption clusters with other unhealthy behaviours. Policy and educational interventions that reach identified at-risk groups are needed to reduce adolescent fast food consumption at the population level. Policies placing restrictions on the portion sizes of fast food may also help adolescents limit their intake.
The rise of social media empowers people to interact and communicate with anyone anywhere in the world. The possibility of being anonymous avoids censorship and enables freedom of expression. Nevertheless, this anonymity might lead to cybersecurity issues, such as opinion spam, sexual harassment, incitement to hatred or even terrorism propaganda. In such cases, there is a need to know more about the anonymous users and this could be useful in several domains beyond security and forensics such as marketing, for example. In this paper, we focus on a fine-grained analysis of language varieties while considering also the authors’ demographics. We present a Low-Dimensionality Statistical Embedding method to represent text documents. We compared the performance of this method with the best performing teams in the Author Profiling task at PAN 2017. We obtained an average accuracy of 92.08% versus 91.84% for the best performing team at PAN 2017. We also analyse the relationship of the language variety identification with the authors’ gender. Furthermore, we applied our proposed method to a more fine-grained annotated corpus of Arabic varieties covering 22 Arab countries and obtained an overall accuracy of 88.89%. We have also investigated the effect of the authors’ age and gender on the identification of the different Arabic varieties, as well as the effect of the corpus size on the performance of our method.
A first step in understanding on-again/off-again relationships is to describe them. This chapter outlines the definition of these relationships and the collective of descriptive information from the research. Across a variety of college student, community, crowdsourcing, and secondary dataset samples, the research shows that a majority of individuals (approximately two-thirds) experience at least one on-off relationship. These relationships tend to go through two to three renewals on average and last just as long or longer than committed romantic relationships that do not break up and renew. Although the vast majority of breakups are initiated by one partner, about half of the renewals are characterized as mutual. Few sex or sexual orientation differences have emerged thus far, but additional research assessing differences among various age cohorts, cultures, and other demographic factors is needed. This chapter ends with a discussion of why the experience of relationship cycling is likely to continue in today’s dating landscape.
The book begins by outlining the representational problem of aging. Across the realist novel, the duration of aging falls out of the attempt to represent it, greatly accelerating the process of aging or writing the passage of years on the body all at once. By doing so, the novel map bodily development and decline onto the temporalities of nineteenth-century British modernity. Subsequent chapters chart this representational problem through a historical narrative that begins from the New Poor Law in 1834 to the 1860s. The pervasive optimism of these years was made possible, in part, by excluding old age from the plots novelists used to represent era. The second part turns to the growing pessimism at the end of the Victorian period, which arises not from marginalizing old age, but from using it as a figure for an exhausted century. While this has the effect of making old age central to fin-de-siècle narratives, senescence also gains new, negative connotations. Through this argument, Aging, Duration, and the English Novel aims to reorient the field age studies away from the implicit stasis of a term like “age” toward the temporal dynamism of “aging studies.”
The paper tests the idea that major demographic shifts can affect housing prices. We first build an overlapping generation model and analytically solve for the equilibrium price of the asset. The model predicts that economies with a higher fraction of old people in the overall population have lower house prices. We empirically test this hypothesis using data on house prices and demographic variables from the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). We find that if population growth increases by one percentage point, house price growth increases by 1.4 percentage points.
Accurately quantifying a consumer’s willingness to pay (WTP) for beef of different eating qualities is intrinsically linked to the development of eating-quality-based meat grading systems, and therefore the delivery of consistent, quality beef to the consumer. Following Australian MSA (Meat Standards Australia) testing protocols, over 19 000 consumers from Northern Ireland, Poland, Ireland, France and Australia were asked to detail their willingness to pay for beef from one of four categories that best described the sample; unsatisfactory, good-every-day, better-than-every-day or premium quality. These figures were subsequently converted to a proportion relative to the good-every-day category (P-WTP) to allow comparison between different currencies and time periods. Consumers also answered a short demographic questionnaire. Consumer P-WTP was found to be remarkably consistent between different demographic groups. After quality grade, by far the greatest influence on P-WTP was country of origin. This difference was unable to be explained by the other demographic factors examined in this study, such as occupation, gender, frequency of consumption and the importance of beef in the diet. Therefore, we can conclude that the P-WTP for beef is highly transferrable between different consumer groups, but not countries.
The central question of this paper is how international trade and specialization are affected by different designs of pension schemes and asymmetric demographic changes. In a model with two goods, two countries and two production factors, we find that countries with a relatively large unfunded pension scheme will specialize in the production of labour intensive goods. If these countries are hit by a negative demographic shock, this specialization will intensify in the long run. Eventually, these countries may even completely specialize in the production of those goods. The effects spill over to other countries, which will move away from complete specialization in capital intensive goods as the relative size of their labour intensive goods sector will also increase.
The historical evolution of the EU–US unemployment-rate gap is often explained in the literature in terms of asymmetric changes in labor-market institutions. There may well also be asymmetries in population aging, which may generate international capital flows and have substantial impacts on relative unemployment rates. In this paper, we ask whether the combination of institutions, aging, and capital flows explains the rise in the unemployment gap between 1960 and 2010. To this end, we set up a two-region OLG model with search unemployment in which we introduce the historical and projected changes in labor-market institutions and demographics. We show that asymmetric institutional changes alone can reproduce a large part of the historical rise in the unemployment gap. However, this result no longer holds once we add asymmetric aging in closed economies. We find this initial result again, and in an even stronger form, when we allow for international capital mobility.
Modiolus modiolus L. (horse mussel) reefs are a priority marine habitat of high conservation value that is currently listed as endangered and/or threatened across its European distribution. Population structure, density or shell morphology may influence the biodiversity of a reef, either directly or indirectly. Thus, such metrics are important considerations for successful conservation management of these biodiversity hotspots. Population structure, shell morphology and growth rates were examined in M. modiolus reefs across the UK range of the habitat to examine differences between key populations, including those near the Lleyn Peninsula in Wales (southern range), off Port Appin in Western Scotland (mid-range) and in Scapa Flow in the Orkney Isles, Scotland (northern range). Additionally, the influence of physical conditions (temperature and tidal flow) to growth rate and predicted maximum shell length for each population was examined. Growth rates were determined using acetate peels of sectioned shells. Lower juvenile abundance was observed in Scapa Flow. Small, narrow-shaped shells were found to be characteristic of North Lleyn mussels, and larger, globular-shaped shells were characteristic of mussels in Scapa Flow and off Port Appin. Mussels in Scapa Flow were slower growing, yet reached a longer asymptotic length (L∞) than mussels of Port Appin and North Lleyn. Growth curves from sites within this study were analysed with other published data. A trend of higher L∞ at higher latitudes and at lower flow rates was observed. Variations in growth and age are discussed in relation to flow regimes, connectivity to other reefs, density and latitude.
The present study was undertaken in order to examine the differences between occupations in the Swedish labour market with respect to the risk for men and women of leaving working life prematurely. The project was carried out as a population study employing methodology used in demographics to predict life length at birth. Here, calculations of expected remaining work-life length were based on the exits from working life. The study was based on the Swedish national labour statistics, covering all employees who had an occupational definition in 2006 and who were in the age range 35–64 years during the study period 2007–2010. There was a clear socio-economic divide in exit patterns, comparing blue- and white-collar jobs. The differences between the highest and the lowest risk jobs exceeded 4.5 years among both men and women. In the blue-collar occupational groups there were 50 per cent or less ‘survivors’ still working at age 65; in many white-collar occupations there were more than 60 per cent. Men and women exited working life at the same age. Compared to a similar study carried out in 2006, the same socio-economic pattern prevails, but people now work longer in almost all occupations. Women exited working life 0.8 years earlier than men in 2006; this difference is now gone.