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This chapter first describes certain innovations found in computer mediated communication in Spanish at the levels of discourse and morphosyntax, such as the creation of new discursive traditions (clickbait headlines) and the innovative patterns displayed by a number of morphemes (-i) and lexemes (fuerte, ojalá). It then offers a qualitative analysis of these phenomena, working with data mostly taken from Twitter, and compares them to similar uses described for English (such as the Because X construction). The chapter ends with an explanation of the high frequency of these uses in computer mediated communication in terms of indexicality.
Does bilingualism bring about structural similarity between the languages in contact? The convergence evaluation metric illustrated in this chapter relies on appropriate data – speech corpora from a well-established bilingual community and from monolingual benchmarks – and a replicable method – diagnostic differences between languages pivoted on the probabilistic structure of internal variation. For variable subject expression, one diagnostic difference lies in prosodic position: the variable context for null subjects in English, outside coordinate clauses, is restricted to verb-initial prosodic units, which, conversely favor pronominal subjects in Spanish. A second quantitative measure is found in accessibility: the effect of coreferentiality and clause linking with the preceding subject is stronger in English than in Spanish. On both measures, bilinguals’ English and Spanish line up with their respective monolingual counterparts and, most remarkably, are different from each other, refuting morphosyntactic convergence. When both languages are in regular use, bilingualism is compatible with continuity rather than change, being best characterized as alternation between, not mixing of, languages.
This study examines syllable-final /s/ deletion in sociolinguistic interviews with sixty-two Spanish speakers. Twenty are residents of New York City and forty-two are residents of Boston. Previous research in these cities has documented intergenerational shifts in the use of a range of variable linguistic features. Two types of linguistic interaction – language contact and dialectal contact – have been suggested as catalysts for these shifts, resulting in use of Spanish that is both more English-like and less regionally differentiated. Though coda /s/ represents a potential site for convergence with English, as well as for dialectal leveling, the present analysis finds evidence of neither trend. Patterns of variation in /s/ are intergenerationally stable, both in terms of speakers’ rates of /s/ deletion and the set of linguistic and social factors that give rise to structured variability. The intergenerational persistence of dialectal differences in /s/ highlights the need to investigate contact outcomes on a feature-by-feature basis and cautions against the assumption that linguistic contact guarantees language change.
A new enantiornithine bird is described on the basis of a well preserved partial skeleton from the Upper Cretaceous Qiupa Formation of Henan Province (central China). It provides new evidence about the osteology of Late Cretaceous enantiornithines, which are mainly known from isolated bones; in contrast, Early Cretaceous forms are often represented by complete skeletons. While the postcranial skeleton shows the usual distinctive characters of enantiornithines, the skull displays several features, including confluence of the antorbital fenestra and the orbit and loss of the postorbital, evolved convergently with modern birds. Although some enantiornithines retained primitive cranial morphologies into the latest Cretaceous Period, at least one lineage evolved cranial modifications that parallel those in modern birds.
This study has two-fold objectives: first, to test the global convergence hypothesis in the progress of child stunting across 174 countries over the period 1990–2015; second, to identify factors determining the process of convergence or divergence.
The study design comprises macro-level cross-country analyses. Our empirical strategy uses parametric convergence models such as absolute and conditional β-convergence models, while non-parametric convergence models such as Kernel density plots serve as robustness checks.
The study uses a global setting comprising child stunting information from 174 countries.
The participants for this study are 174 countries. The information on child stunting prevalence for most countries is available from the UNICEF-WHO-WB Joint Child Malnutrition Estimates Expanded Database (April-2019), while national-level surveys are used for those countries where UNICEF-WHO-WB Database is not available. The data for socio-economic variables are taken from the World Bank’s data bank (1990–2015).
Findings from the absolute β-convergence model estimates show that progress in child stunting has diverged over the entire period (1990–2015). However, the speed of divergence has reduced for the recent period (2010–2015). The conditional β-convergence model estimates show that cross-country heterogeneity in GDP per capita, poverty and health care expenditure are significant factors explaining divergence in child stunting.
For replacing current divergence with convergence in child stunting worldwide, the study demonstrates the critical role of economic factors and public spending on health care to reduce child stunting, particularly in countries where progress is slow.
Chapter 15 situates his work during the Cold War and the debate about convergence between the economic and political systems in the East and West. Tinbergen’s argument for coexistence of the two nuclear powers and economic systems is analyzed. This thesis of coexistence is later developed by Tinbergen into a theory of convergence, which is not rooted in economic or sociological theory, but is primarily a moral argument about the (search for an) optimal order. His idea of the optimal order is analyzed, in particular, to emphasize how deeply he had become an institutional thinker. The chapter also discusses various international interactions of Tinbergen in Indonesia, Spain, France, and elsewhere with military leaders and regimes to explore the consequences of his desire to always engage in conversation and to avoid conflict. These limits are further explored in a critique of his convergence thesis by his daughter and son-in-law. The chapter concludes with an analysis of an exchange between Oskar Morgenstern and Tinbergen about the role of the economist during the Cold War. Morgenstern worked for the US military to optimize military strategies, whereas Tinbergen argued that economists should direct their efforts to promoting peace.
In order to achieve high efficient self-motion for a redundant robot manipulator, a novel quadratic programming and varying-gain recurrent neural network based varying-gain neural self-motion (VGN-SM) approach is proposed and developed. With VGN-SM, the convergence errors can be adaptively and efficiently converged to zero. For comparisons, a traditional fixed-parameter neural self-motion (FPN-SM) approach is also presented. Theoretical analysis shows that the proposed VGN-SM has higher accuracy than the traditional FPN-SM. Finally, comparative experiments between VGN-SM and FPN-SM are performed on a six degrees-of-freedom robot manipulator to verify the advantages of the novel VGN-SM.
At first glance, administrative law in Canada, where courts regularly defer to administrative decision-makers’ interpretations of law and judicial review of administrative action is organised around the concept of reasonableness, is very different to administrative law in England, where courts do not defer to administrative interpretations of law and prefer to conceive of the justification for judicial oversight of administrative action in terms of grounds of review and jurisdictional error. One might think, based on this first glance, that the differences must be attributable to deep-seated disagreement about the nature of judicial power and the appropriate allocation of interpretive authority between the branches of government. One might even suspect that such disagreement must rest on long-settled historical foundations. I will argue, however, that the difference between Canadian and English administrative law is best explained by relatively recent accidents of history. Indeed, I will suggest, a prolonged period of divergence may be coming to an end, with the Transatlantic rise of reasonableness review ushering in a new era of convergence. I will develop this argument by tracing the pattern of divergence and convergence in Canadian and English administrative law from the 1970s to the present day. From the common starting point identified in Part I, the two jurisdictions diverged dramatically between the 1970s and 2000s, as I will explain in Part II. Since then, the administrative law of the two jurisdiction has converged to some extent, as outlined in Part III. One of the implications of my argument is, as I discuss in Part IV, is that further convergence in the future is possible. Moreover, a corollary of this argument is that there is room for fruitful comparisons of English and Canadian administrative law. My message, to those who fear – for whatever reason – that “there be dragons”, is that they can safely venture forward in an Anglo-Canadian comparative administrative law endeavour. A reader interested in undertaking comparative analysis might well conclude that the nature of judicial power, the appropriate allocation of interpretive authority and long-settled historical foundations are substantially similar in both jurisdictions.
Biologists often study living systems in light of their having evolved, of their being the products of various processes of heredity, adaptation, ancestry, and so on. In their investigations, then, biologists think comparatively: they situate lineages into models of those evolutionary processes, comparing their targets with ancestral relatives and with analogous evolutionary outcomes. This element characterizes this mode of investigation - 'comparative thinking' - and puts it to work in understanding why biological science takes the shape it does. Importantly, comparative thinking is local: what we can do with knowledge of a lineage is limited by the evolutionary processes into which it fits. In light of this analysis, the Element examines the experimental study of animal cognition, and macroevolutionary investigation of the 'shape of life', demonstrating the importance of comparative thinking in understanding both the power and limitations of biological knowledge.
We introduce weak lensing due to foreground structures with the aim of treating lensing of CMB anisotropies and polarization. This second-order effect is especially important on small scales but has to be taken into account for ℓ ≳ 400 if we want to achieve an accuracy of better than 1%. We first derive the deflection angle and the lensing power spectrum. Then we discuss lensing of CMB fluctuations and polarization in the at sky approximation, which is sufficiently accurate for angular harmonics with ℓ ≳ 50 where lensing is relevant.
This paper presents a multi-country version of the Ramsey growth model with cross-country technological interdependence. The results rationalize several stylized facts about growth and convergence. First, individual countries tend to converge toward country-specific balanced growth paths rather than steady-state equilibria. Second, an economy that accounts for a smaller share of the world technology distribution harnesses the “advantages of backwardness” to catch up at a faster speed. Third, countries grow at different rates during the phase of transitional dynamics. However, technological interdependence creates a force toward cross-country convergence in the growth rate and stability of world income distribution in the long run. Finally, cross-country differences in structural characteristics and initial conditions lead to divergences in the level of income per capita.
Systemic governance in higher education – that is, the way in which higher education policy is coordinated through institutionalized arrangements and practices – has received particular attention from scholars in recent decades, the exact period during which the inherited characteristics of HEs have been significantly changed by the effects of massification, welfare state financial crises, and globalization/internationalization. These changes have mostly been the effects of governmental policies that have apparently followed the same template to solve a common set of problems (how to make higher education more competitive, inclusive, effective and accountable). However, these consistent shifts in systemic governance of higher education do not look to have really driven to a global convergence towards the same way to organize the systemic arrangement of higher education governance. This chapter focuses exactly on the question of whether and how there has been convergence in the process of reforms of systemic higher education. The conclusion, based on a policy instrumental perspective, is that more the convergence there has been a kind of complex process of hybridization.
This chapter focuses on developments in governance in European higher education, with a focus on Western Europe. It presents an overview of the literature on this topic, including the various modes of governance as well as the changes in European higher education in recent decades. The chapter starts by describing different conceptual models used to address and analyse higher education governance. Next, it portrays general tendencies with regard to governance and shows that states have been delegating some of their powers to other levels in the higher education system in four directions: an upward shift to the supranational level, a horizontal shift to ‘independent’ agencies, a downward shift to the institutions (‘autonomy’), and an outward shift (‘privatization, contracting’). As a result of these shifts, often cited as a move from government to governance, the modes of system steering and coordination have become more complex and dynamic, including more stakeholders at different policy levels. The chapter then considers that governance configurations in European higher education not only have similarities, but also differ in various ways.
The importance of forest conservation in the fight against emissions from deforestation and forest degradation has led to reexamination of the deforestation and economic development relationship. For this purpose, we use the recent method of long-term growth rate developed by Stern et al. (2017) on 85 tropical developing countries over the period 1990–2010. Results show that the EKC is not significant. However, we find a beta convergence across developing countries in terms of deforestation per capita. In other words, these countries converge in terms of policies that prevent deforestation and forest degradation. This implies that, just as with growth effects, beta convergence effects are also important in explaining changes in forest cover in tropical developing countries. The convergence effect in forest cover change may be consistent with the forest transition hypothesis.
This chapter acts as a capstone to Part IV’s presentation of country reports. It presents the findings of a comparative analysis of arbitration laws in the different countries reported. This analysis focuses on the different issues presented in Parts I–III, including scope and interpretation of arbitration clauses, anti-arbitration laws and policies, arbitrator bias and misconduct, the public policy exception, and other limits on arbitrability. Thus, the country reports are reviewed here to determine areas of commonality and divergences across national laws relating to judicial intervention into the arbitration process. It will also assess possible trends in international commercial arbitration.
Recently, Penn World Tables include new data that enable calculation of total factor productivity in addition to output for a large set of countries. We use these new data to examine convergence and divergence across countries by applying a new approach, which differentiates between the dynamics of output and of productivity. Our empirical results lead to two main new contributions to the literature. The first is on the interpretation of “β-convergence” in “growth regressions.” It means that output per worker in each country converges to productivity but does not imply convergence across countries, since productivity tends to diverge from the global frontier. The second contribution is to the literature, which finds that income gaps across countries are due mainly to differential technology adoption. This paper shows that the gaps in technology are not only large but keep growing over time.
In this chapter, we discuss the general finite element analysis procedure for 2-D and 3-D linear scalar field problems. A scalar field problem is a problem whose primary unknown physical quantity is a scalar at any spatial location in the computational domain. We demonstrate the finite element analysis procedure by solving 2-D and 3-D steady state heat transfer problems. The steady state heat transfer problems are solved step by step in the same fashion as solving 1-D problems. Strong and weak forms of the governing equations are derived from the law of energy conservation and the method of weighted residuals. 2-D and 3-D finite element approximations and elements are described in detail. Numerical integration over multi-dimensional elements is also described in detail. Convergence considerations are discussed. MATLAB codes for solving these problems are presented.
The author compares the practice of trade and investment adjudicators in relation to the requirement to interpret a treaty ‘in the light of its object and purpose’. He begins by identifying a range of issues and choices that adjudicators are confronted with in this regard, and the practical barriers to any significant degree of judicial interaction or cross-fertilization between trade and investment adjudicators with respect to those issues. He then shows that notwithstanding the absence of judicial interaction, there is a remarkable degree of convergence in the legal reasoning of trade and investment adjudicators on diverse issues. Among the issues, he includes the basis for identifying a treaty's object and purpose, the need to balance competing objectives, the recognition of some of the limitations of purposive reasoning, and even standard forms of consequentialist arguments. The final section argues that such convergence is most easily explained by the theory that many aspects of legal reasoning and treaty interpretation derive not from knowledge of prior precedent and judicial practices, but from common sense and the nature of the judicial function.
The author reflects on the conclusions of the contributors to the edited volume and, based on his prior research, provides his own perspective on the main topic. His prior analysis of 395 ISDS rulings – and how they reference WTO law and European human rights law – throws cold water on the proposition that the trade and investment regimes, which some see as wrongly separated at birth, are converging around substantive common principles, standards or rules. Firstly, if significant trade-investment law convergence exists, it is not occurring through explicit reliance on WTO law by ISDS arbitrators. Secondly, the references to WTO law that he finds were narrow not only with respect to the numbers of IIAs involved; they were narrow with respect to the kinds of issues on which trade law was deemed relevant. The author furthermore acknowledges the limitations of citation studies, such as those conducted by him, as the two regimes may engage in other ways, apart from what happens at the final public stage of formal dispute settlement.
This chapter focuses on treaty committees that share interpretative functions with adjudicative bodies. The author explores whether, and to what extent, joint interpretative commissions/committees are in fact signs of convergence between international investment law and international trade law. The author addresses convergence through the following four dimensions: spatial, temporal, ideological and functional. She concludes that the ideological dimension demonstrates a deeper convergence than can be seen from the space and time perspectives, namely the introduction of a new epistemic community into the field of international investment. Furthermore, the functional dimension shows lasting similarities and differences between the fields. Nevertheless, deeper analysis shows up complexity in reconciling states’ dual role as both respondents and interpreters in pending proceedings, and this is where convergence meets resistance.