To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The concluding chapter argues that the Asian leniency programmes only converge on the core elements of a leniency programme. The core elements are the building blocks of a leniency programme. However, the composition of these blocks is often different. Some of the differences are subtle. Other differences make the respective leniency programme distinct from the others. Some of the distinctive elements are not necessarily part of the building blocks any more and thus give a unique character to the respective leniency programme. This chapter further claims that these differences can be explained by either the political economy of a country, experimentation due to prior negative enforcement results and a desire to achieve better enforcement results, or foreign influence. Since the result of experimentation cannot always be predicted, the authors estimate that further amendments will be made to the Asian leniency programmes.
Inputs to the thalamus display perplexing heterogeneity in source, transmitter, and the complexity of axon terminals. Almost the entire neuraxis provides excitatory and/or inhibitory terminals to the thalamus. The structure of both glutamatergic and GABAergic inputs varies from simple unisynaptic to highly complex multisynaptic terminals. Variable bouton structures support neurotransmission with different kinetics. In contrast to earlier accounts that proposed the dominance of a single type of input on thalamocortical activity (“relay cell”), in the majority of the thalamus, integration of inputs with different origins, transmitters, and complexities is the rule. Because most thalamic inputs are confined to only a portion of the structure, the emerging picture is that inputs can be integrated in many distinct ways in different thalamic territories. As a consequence, unlike in modular networks, where, however complex the input space is, it is homogeneous across the structure (e.g., the striatum, cerebellum, or cortex), no canonical thalamic module can be defined. The reason for this unique complexity is presently unclear, but the lack of canonical input organization in the thalamus certainly limits the opportunity of generalizing thalamic transfer function between territories. Deciphering the role of the thalamus requires an understanding of the diversity in thalamic input integration in each region.
This chapter is about the evolution of language contact as a research area from the late nineteenth century to the present. It underscores the catalyst part that the discovery of creoles and pidgins by European philologists and other precursors of modern linguistics played in highlighting the roles of population movement and language contact as actuators of language change and speciation. It draws attention to the significance of the study of language evolution in European colonies in making evident the realities of language coexistence. These include the possible competition that can cause language shift and the death of one or some of the coexistent languages, a process that has affected competing European vernaculars faster than it has, for instance, Native American languages. It underscores the expansion of the field as linguists became interested in phenomena such as interference, codeswitching (or translanguaging), codemixing, diglossia, language diasporas, and linguistic areas, as well as factors that facilitate or favor the evolution of structures, sometimes of the same language, in divergent ways, owing to changes in population structures.
The chapter re-positions the study of contact-induced language change in the context of the individual user’s management of a complex repertoire of linguistic structures. Taking as a point of departure the assumption that for multilinguals, boundaries among “languages” are permeable and subject to users’ creativity, I draw links between structural outcomes of contact and the inherent functions that structural categories have in information processing in communication. Topics covered include code-switching, lexical borrowing, functional and grammatical borrowing, and convergence and contact-induced grammaticalization. I examine proposed hierarchies of borrowability in lexicon and grammar, and revisit the notion of “constraints” on borrowing. I argue in favour of an epistemology that identifies trends as worthy of attention even if isolated exceptions exist; and which seeks to derive explanatory models from such cross-linguistic trends. I conclude that the study of structural outcomes of language contact can contribute to a better understanding of the language faculty itself, and possibly even of key aspects of the evolution of human language.
The main purpose of this paper is to analyze the contribution of land capital to the growth of emissions and income per capita in the long run. We collect new satellite data from the Earth Observatory to obtain estimates of the Enhanced Vegetation Index at the country level for the period 2000–2015. We use these data and the World Bank wealth estimates of natural capital to calibrate and empirically test an extension of the Green Solow model with land degradation and land capital investment. We show that the model is consistent with the cross-country variation in growth rates of carbon emissions per capita and find that there is convergence at the global level, with the contribution of land capital investment to the growth of emissions being negative and significant in all specifications.
No governing international text or generally accepted doctrine defines the procedure to be applied by international courts and tribunals. Yet these institutions’ tasks pose common challenges: providing notice of a dispute, defining its nature and scope, determining the legal rules, marshalling and assessing evidence, finding facts and applying legal rules to them, and then recording and communicating the result. There often is substantial similarity – indeed, convergence – in how courts and tribunals go about these tasks. This chapter examines some of the factors and institutions that contribute to this procedural harmonization among institutions dealing with disputes between parties from different countries and legal cultures. It looks at the shared historical foundations of important procedural practices, the influence of intergovernmental and nongovernmental organizations, the roles individuals sometimes play in transmitting “legal technology” between institutions, and the effect of competition among institutions seeking to meet the needs of their “customers.” It also notes areas where procedure can diverge, as users look for new ways to address procedural problems.
The multilateral trading system faces numerous challenges that are more profound than at any time in its seven-decade history. It has become commonplace to ask whether the system is in terminal decline. More than a dozen issues facing the WTO are identified in the paper, eight of which are defined as systemic. That is because they permeate and debilitate multiple facets of the workings of the WTO, including the capacity to negotiate, enforce disciplines, monitor policies, and ensure transparency. In no prioritized order, systemic issues arise in the areas of dispute settlement, development, decision-making, transparency, relations between states and markets, subsidies, emerging issues including climate change and digitalization, and trade and health. Other outstanding issues may not be as pervasive in impact, but can nevertheless undermine WTO relevance and effectiveness. All WTO members stand to lose in the absence of predictable multilateral trade rules that pre-commit parties to certain policies and processes. But in today's world, full convergence of all trade rules is a pipe dream. The system needs to balance convergence with managed divergence. Does the non-discrimination principle need to be layered by prior agreement in ways that ensure mutual gains from exchange?
There have been increasing and stronger calls for greater integration of many Asian economies, either within the confines of ASEAN or on a more geo-economically strategic scale that would include major Asian jurisdictions like China, Japan, and Korea. A number of key personalities within the regional legal fraternity have advanced views that such integration ought to occur through the harmonization of legal rules, arguing amongst others that in so doing uncertainty and other transaction costs would be reduced and commercial confidence within the region concomitantly increased. That commercial law has come under the lens as a particularly suitable candidate for harmonization is, in a sense, unsurprising. It is for one ostensibly seen as a technical and relatively uncontroversial area of law, as opposed, for instance, to public law. For another, or probably for that precise reason, this area has been the historical choice for attempts at harmonizing substantive law – think of the CISG, the UCC in the United States or the recently proposed CESL in the European Union. This edited volume brings together eminent and promising scholars and practitioners to investigate what convergence and divergence means in their respective fields and for Asia.
There have been an increasing need for greater integration of many Asian economies, either within the confines of ASEAN or on a more geo-economically strategic scale including major Asian jurisdictions like China, Japan, and Korea. A number of key personalities within the regional legal fraternity have advanced views that such integration ought to occur through the harmonization of legal rules, arguing that in doing so, uncertainty and other transaction costs would be reduced and commercial confidence within the region concomitantly increased. This edited volume brings together eminent and promising scholars and practitioners to investigate what convergence and divergence means in their respective fields and for Asia. Interwoven in the details of each tale of convergence is whether and how convergence ought to take place, and in so choosing, what are the attendant consequences for that choice.
This preliminary chapter contains notations, definitions, and basic concepts needed for the study of Measure Theory and Functional Analysis. Most of this chapter is for reference and may be read only as needed. Included are concepts such as Convergence, Continuity, and Compactness in Euclidean Spaces. The theory of Euclidean Measure and sets of Measure Zero are covered. An overview is included of Integration sufficient to begin the study of Functional Analysis. The chapter finishes with topics such as Functions of Bounded Variation, Inequalities, along with a discussion of the Axiom of Choice.
Metric Spaces, Normed Spaces, and Banach Spaces are investigated. Topological concepts of Open and Closed sets, Convergence, Continuity, Compactness, Completeness, and Total Boundedness are studied. The Stone–Weierstrass Approximation Theorem is proven.
The dynamics of the fragmentation equation with size diffusion is investigated when the size ranges in
. The associated linear operator involves three terms and can be seen as a nonlocal perturbation of a Schrödinger operator. A Miyadera perturbation argument is used to prove that it is the generator of a positive, analytic semigroup on a weighted
-space. Moreover, if the overall fragmentation rate does not vanish at infinity, then there is a unique stationary solution with given mass. Assuming further that the overall fragmentation rate diverges to infinity for large sizes implies the immediate compactness of the semigroup and that it eventually stabilizes at an exponential rate to a one-dimensional projection carrying the information of the mass of the initial value.
This is a concluding chapter, and considers the general themes raised by the previously mentioned materials. These include the limits of globalization, the importance of small countries, and the often thin line between reality and fantasy in domestic and international image-making. While the Nordics have many faults, they have succeeded in creating an alternate image of democracy that emphasizes a balance between the individual, society, and the physical environment. For these reasons – and not withstanding criticisms – the Nordic Model remains important in the twenty-first century.
We suggest (Proposition 5) that a community is functionally assembled when there is at least one species representing each functional type that is adapted to the habitat. We suggest (Proposition 6) that a community is fully assembled when each functional type has the maximum number of species that can coexist. Much biological diversity lies in the lower tail of the log-normal distribution, yet ecologists frequently trim this tail of rare species to construct models. The rising tide of species extinctions requires us to revisit this procedure, and to consider how to include conservation of rare species in models for community assembly. This requires us to recognize that there are two types of “rare” species in ecological data sets: those that are merely rare in samples and those that are designated as globally rare and at risk of extinction. Most communities arise from pre-existing communities, so when filters change there is often inertia in community response, and this inertia is related to traits. The principles laid out in this book provide a guide not only to theoretical understanding but for the challenges of ecological restoration.
This chapter presents an overview of heritage speakers’ linguistic outcomes with the goal of bringing some answers to longstanding debates in contact linguistics. Of special interest are mechanisms of contact-induced change such as convergence and grammaticalization, the role of transfer and priming in those processes, and whether or not these processes lead to simplification or complexification in heritage grammars. Overall, the evidence in the literature favors the argument that syntactic material rarely gets transferred, and that patterns of convergence toward the dominant language are a byproduct of other mechanisms. Contrary to proponents of the theory that social factors take a secondary role in contact-induced grammaticalization, it has also revealed that contact-induced grammaticalization processes in heritage grammars are dependent on the social dynamics of the community. While priming may lead to converge, such effects are also heavily dependent on the social dynamics of the heritage speakers. Results also indicate that patterns of simplification and complexification are intrinsically linked to usage. The discussion makes a call for more work considering intersubjective factors in the study of heritage grammars, in an attempt to better understand the relationship between linguistic systems and social structures.
The analysis in the last chapters reveals a convergence across the various models and jurisdictions considered in addressing the ‘substantive content’ of the obligations of non-state actors. This chapter attempts to describe and systematise what emerges from these judgments into an analytical framework which I term the ‘multi-factoral approach’. An optimal articulation of this approach, I argue, requires a series of steps, three of which I seek to accomplish in this chapter: namely, identifying the various factors at play in a situation; examining their normative grounding and understanding their relevance to the imposition of corporate obligations; and, developing presumptive principles, that help us understand their implications for corporate obligations. I identify and explore the relevance and weight to be accorded to three beneficiary-orientated factors (interests, vulnerability and impact) as well as three agent-relative factors (capacity, function and autonomy). This chapter also shows that none of these factors is alone sufficient to determine corporate obligations.
This chapter first describes certain innovations found in computer mediated communication in Spanish at the levels of discourse and morphosyntax, such as the creation of new discursive traditions (clickbait headlines) and the innovative patterns displayed by a number of morphemes (-i) and lexemes (fuerte, ojalá). It then offers a qualitative analysis of these phenomena, working with data mostly taken from Twitter, and compares them to similar uses described for English (such as the Because X construction). The chapter ends with an explanation of the high frequency of these uses in computer mediated communication in terms of indexicality.
Does bilingualism bring about structural similarity between the languages in contact? The convergence evaluation metric illustrated in this chapter relies on appropriate data – speech corpora from a well-established bilingual community and from monolingual benchmarks – and a replicable method – diagnostic differences between languages pivoted on the probabilistic structure of internal variation. For variable subject expression, one diagnostic difference lies in prosodic position: the variable context for null subjects in English, outside coordinate clauses, is restricted to verb-initial prosodic units, which, conversely favor pronominal subjects in Spanish. A second quantitative measure is found in accessibility: the effect of coreferentiality and clause linking with the preceding subject is stronger in English than in Spanish. On both measures, bilinguals’ English and Spanish line up with their respective monolingual counterparts and, most remarkably, are different from each other, refuting morphosyntactic convergence. When both languages are in regular use, bilingualism is compatible with continuity rather than change, being best characterized as alternation between, not mixing of, languages.
This study examines syllable-final /s/ deletion in sociolinguistic interviews with sixty-two Spanish speakers. Twenty are residents of New York City and forty-two are residents of Boston. Previous research in these cities has documented intergenerational shifts in the use of a range of variable linguistic features. Two types of linguistic interaction – language contact and dialectal contact – have been suggested as catalysts for these shifts, resulting in use of Spanish that is both more English-like and less regionally differentiated. Though coda /s/ represents a potential site for convergence with English, as well as for dialectal leveling, the present analysis finds evidence of neither trend. Patterns of variation in /s/ are intergenerationally stable, both in terms of speakers’ rates of /s/ deletion and the set of linguistic and social factors that give rise to structured variability. The intergenerational persistence of dialectal differences in /s/ highlights the need to investigate contact outcomes on a feature-by-feature basis and cautions against the assumption that linguistic contact guarantees language change.
A new enantiornithine bird is described on the basis of a well preserved partial skeleton from the Upper Cretaceous Qiupa Formation of Henan Province (central China). It provides new evidence about the osteology of Late Cretaceous enantiornithines, which are mainly known from isolated bones; in contrast, Early Cretaceous forms are often represented by complete skeletons. While the postcranial skeleton shows the usual distinctive characters of enantiornithines, the skull displays several features, including confluence of the antorbital fenestra and the orbit and loss of the postorbital, evolved convergently with modern birds. Although some enantiornithines retained primitive cranial morphologies into the latest Cretaceous Period, at least one lineage evolved cranial modifications that parallel those in modern birds.