To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This study aimed to explore in a naturalistic, real-life setting the dynamics of trust in oncological consultations.
Cases to study were purposively selected from a data set of audio-recorded and transcribed consultations between oncology physicians and patients with advanced cancer, and analyzed qualitatively. The analytical approach was deductive, relying on a thematic framework of dimensions of trust, and inductive, not restricted by this framework.
The multiple case study approach allowed to identify factors, which play a role in the dynamics of trust. These factors are the number of treating physicians and how they communicate, continuity of care and the capital of trust, the hierarchical position of the physician and the physician's self-trust, and the patient's personality.
Significance of results
The findings illustrate the importance to contextualize trust in the flow of oncological consultations and to conceive it comprehensively for each singular encounter between patients and clinicians.
Although countries differ tremendously in population size, comparative public administration has not considered this context factor systematically. This Element provides the most comprehensive theoretical and empirical account to date of the effects that country size has on the functioning of public administration. It synthesizes existing literature and develops a theoretical framework that distinguishes the effects of small, medium and large country size on administrative structures, practices, and public service performance. Large states with larger administrations benefit from specialization but are prone to coordination problems, whereas small states experience advantages and disadvantages linked to multifunctionalism and informal practices. Midsize countries may achieve economies of scale while avoiding diseconomies of excessive size, which potentially allows for highest performance. Descriptive and causal statistical analyses of worldwide indicators and a qualitative comparison of three countries, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and Germany, demonstrate the various ways in which size matters for public administrations around the world.
With so much attention on DeLillo’s novels, it is easy to lose track of his success and eminence as a playwright. DeLillo has written five full-length plays, The Engineer of Moonlight (1979), The Day Room (first production 1986), Valparaiso (first production 1999), Love-Lies-Bleeding (first production 2005), and The Word for Snow (first production 2007), several of which continue to be produced regularly in theatres throughout the world. Through these plays, readers can understand the influence of various playwrights on both the plays and the novels, as well as the influence that DeLillo’s sociopolitical context had on his playwriting. By examining the wider context in which the plays sit, in addition to the theatrical elements of spoken word, scene, spectatorship and ephemerality, we will notice how writing for the theatre is a political act for this writer.
In offering a context for Benjamin Britten, we approached his milieu from vantage points that could adequately represent the fullness of his position in England and in the twentieth century. We were rewarded by the richness of Britten’s engagement with his contemporaries in music, art, literature, and film, British musical institutions, royal and governmental entities, and the church. Equally, his ground-breaking projects that intersected across diverse entities and explored his philosophical and ideological tenets provided food for thought.
This chapter explores how behavioural difficulties and attendance at school can affect each other in different ways and aims to help practitioners to think more about what it is the child is communicating through their behaviour. The chapter considers behaviour in the context of normal development and defining behavioural difficulties and disorders. It moves on to consider behavioural difficulties in relation to attendance and exclusion from school. The chapter emphasises the need to avoid taking behaviours at face value and exploring the child’s individual needs, in the context in which this behaviour is arising, through thinking about adverse childhood experiences, attachment and wider influences. In thinking about the possible needs of the child through holistic assessment the chapter ends with some considerations around moving forward and what we can do to support a more positive trajectory. We hope that practitioners will see the importance of remaining open and curious about behaviour to further understand and support the children and young people they work alongside.
Benjamin Britten, pianist, conductor, educator, composer of a wide range of music from large-scale operas and choral works to string quartets and songs, is acknowledged as a pivotal figure in mid-twentieth-century Britain. This volume explores the contexts for his multi-faceted career and his engagement with his contemporaries in music, art, literature, and film, British musical institutions, royal and governmental entities, and the church, as well as his ground-breaking projects, philosophical and ideological tenets. The book is thematically structured in five parts: Britten's relationships with Peter Pears, his close friends, mentors, and colleagues; musical life in Britain; his interactions with previous and contemporary generations of composers; his professional work with choreographers, librettists, stage designers, and directors; and his socio-cultural, religious, and political environment. The chapters shed light on the many opportunities and challenges of post-war British musical life that shaped Britten's creative output.
Knowing when to stop: define your parameters. ‘The past is a foreign country: they do things differently there’ – take no small detail of everyday life for granted. Start broad and shallow; later go deep and narrow. The big story and the little story – keeping the balance right. Keeping research unobtrusive. Historical fiction: checklist of areas for initial research and suggested sources.
‘We’re not looking for historical truth but for fictive plausibility, on terms the writer must establish with the reader. A better question than ""Is this true?"" is “Have I made this seem plausible?”’
In the course of responding to the many themes on action ascription raised in this volume, this chapter briefly outlines some of the main resources – both internal and external to the turn – that may contribute to the process. It is suggested that action ascription involves the integration of ‘bottom-up’ resources within the turn (including grammar, lexicon, prosody, gaze and multi-modality) with ‘top-down’ resources external to the turn (sequence position, location of the sequence within a broader activity, institutional contexts, and personal statuses and the rights accruing to them). Work on the integration of these resources may also shed light on the apparent rapidity with which action ascription is achieved by comparison with the slower pace of turn projection. It is possible that the apprehension of turn-external characteristics may interface with turn initial elements to conduce towards this outcome.
Research on addictive behavior change has highlighted the importance of assessing and monitoring contextual features surrounding substance use. This chapter summarizes contextual, substance-involved, and substance-free measurement procedures that are used in human research and practice. These measures are guided by behavioral economic theory and comprise techniques to assess the interaction of the environment and the person, including aspects of enjoyment and contextual situations associated with drug-taking, rating scale measures of drug and drug-free rewards, and relative reinforcement value measures. The approaches summarized demonstrate the importance of focusing on substance use contexts, the behavioral economic factors that support continued substance use, and the availability of substance-free reinforcement. These factors should be an integral feature of substance-related assessment and interventions to reduce harmful substance use and promote recovery from alcohol and other substance use disorders.
In this chapter, we consider the embeddedness of organizational routines within their organizational contexts, drawing on the original work on this construct (Howard-Grenville, 2005), revisiting its core ideas, and reviewing subsequent work that has addressed routine embeddedness. We find that recent work has highlighted the importance of understanding routine dynamics as influenced by and potentially mutually constitutive with other generative aspects of organizational life. We end with calls for future research on this topic and encourage scholars to further explore how routines interact with other core aspects of organizing.
In this chapter we link community psychology values, particularly social justice, to intervention contexts, examining the essential role of ethics in the development and implementation of intervention strategies. We also review the status of ethical guidelines in community-based research. Three factors particularly critical to the development and implementation of successful interventions are whether the intervention is appropriate for the setting, whether the roles of the intervenor and participant are clearly articulated, and whether the intervention itself is sustainable. From these we identify three factors central in assessing any ethical concerns within the community psychology arena: taking the variable features of context into account; ensuring meaningful participant involvement; and addressing the sustainability of interventions.
Business history is expanding to include a greater plurality of contexts, with the study of Chinese business representing a key area of growth. However, despite efforts to bring China into the fold, much of Chinese business history remains stubbornly distal to the discipline. One reason is that business historians have not yet reconciled with the field's unique origins and intellectual tradition. This article develops a revisionist historiography of Chinese business history that retraces the field's development from its Cold War roots to the present day, showing how it has been shaped by the particular questions and concerns of “area studies.” It then goes on to explore five recent areas of novel inquiry, namely: the study of indigenous business institutions, business and semi-colonial context, business at the periphery of empire, business during socialist transition, and business under Chinese socialism. Through this mapping of past and present trajectories, the article aims to provide greater coherence to the burgeoning field and shows how, by taking Chinese business history seriously, we are afforded a unique opportunity to reimagine the future of business history as a whole.
This concluding chapter looks across the eight country case studies of implementation of education reform. It sets out to analyse the patterns, commonalities and differences in the reforms. It does so under headings which are seen as the key factors: the importance of context; timescales; the key role of communication; models of implementation; the role played by internal and external actors and stakeholders. Finally, there is a cross case analysis of the practicalities and truisms that are often overlooked in the rush to govern or manage a system to respond to a political imperative. These are described as reality checks, reminders that educational changes involve real people with direct and indirect interests in what they do in their working and learning lives, people with a deep understanding of their environment and thousands of hours engaged in learning, years of professional experience and stores of practice knowledge. These obvious and readily observable lessons are often overlooked and could be of use to designers, policymakers and deliverers of educational reform.
The present chapter is concerned with the methods and tools that have been proposed and used to assess creativity in children and adolescents. Creativity across developmental periods is a moving target. The 7 Cs framework highlights the main facets of creativity that have appeared in the literature (Lubart, 2017). These Cs provide a framework for examining creativity assessment in terms of Creators (creative people), Creating (the act of producing new work), Collaborations (interactions with close others during creation), Context (the physical and social environment), Creation (the new production and its characteristics), Consumption (the uptake and adoption of creative work), and Curricula (teaching and developing creativity through education).
The purpose of the Discussion is to tell the reader whether the data are likely to prove or disprove the hypothesis, presenting relevant arguments, consider in relation to previous publications. Indicating where caution in interpretation is needed, and qualifying conclusions as necessary.
A scientific paper is part of an ongoing sequence of findings. The author has to put this in context, which is the act of writing an Introduction, effectively the state of the art in the particular research project at the time of preparing a new paper. It should include seminal works from the past, but should also focus on the issues that have come in the more recent past. It needs to explain how the author arrived at the hypothesis that must be clearly included in this Introduction.
An individual’s network ties are crucial to their well-being and life outcomes, and an emerging literature connects these network effects to the persistence or mitigation of group-based inequality. At the same time, we know very little about how the contexts in which relationships are formed shape individual-level and group-level networks. This leaves our understanding of network-based mechanisms of inequality separate from the contexts in which relationships are formed and operate. This chapter sets forth a model that combines context, ego and global network structure, and inequality arising from network effects into one causal chain. We review evidence on how different characteristics of context – population size and composition, number and kinds of social foci, and organizational practices – contribute to the structure of social networks. We then review research demonstrating how those network features, as well as the overall structure of relationships, contribute to distributions of outcomes in the population. The chapter concludes with applications of the model using examples from student behavior in schools and from evidence about migration. We suggest that network scholars and scholars of inequality build this more expansive perspective into their work in order to better understand mechanisms of inequality.
This chapter presents a detailed study of Iron Age precious metal hoards in the southern Levant (and one hoard in the Aegean), and uses the data from the hoards to reconstruct the early development of money use, and its historical and social context. The analyses focus on the archaeological and geographical context of the individual hoards, and the internal metrology and typology of the hoards. Most importantly, it is demonstrated that the hoards conform to chronologically coherent patterns of material characteristics. Starting at the end of the Late Bronze Age, silver jewellery and prestige items were increasingly appropriated for use in exchange as a form of money. Hoards from the latter phase of the Iron I reflect a high level of circulation, and the use of silver in small-scale transactions of a high level of precision, representing small change. After the end of the eighth century, the hoards dating to the Iron IIC cease to reflect the common use of silver money in exchange, indicating again a distinct change in the role of silver money in the economy.
This chapter reexamines the extensively discussed evidence for the circumstances that drove the Jews to a seemingly irrational and hopeless challenge to the power of Rome. The account of Josephus, on which we almost exclusively rely, offers the teleological scenario of a long build-up of hostility that issued inevitably in disaster. While acknowledging the background and circumstances that lay behind the conflict, this chapter emphasizes the numerous contingencies, unanticipated events, personalities, and miscalculations that played a key role in bringing it about. The tension and anxiety that had built up for two generations in a series of individual episodes supplied a significant impetus. But error, accident, and unintended consequences are critical to understanding the course of events. Josephus’ sense of inevitability, born of hindsight and his special situation, needs a corrective.