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Effective methods for training and education in the dissemination of evidence-based treatments is a priority. This commentary provides doctoral clinical psychology graduate student authors perspectives on common myths about cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). Three myths were identified and considered: (1) CBT does not value the therapeutic relationship; (2) CBT is overly rigid; and (3) exposure techniques are cruel. Graduate students were engaged in a competency-based course in Cognitive Behavioural Approaches to Psychotherapy at an American Psychological Association (APA)-accredited doctoral clinical psychology program. The origins of common myths identified by graduate students included a lack of in-depth coverage of CBT and brief video segments provided during introductory courses, lived experience with CBT, and pre-determined views of manualized treatment and exposure techniques. Myth-addressing factors discussed by graduate students included holding space at the start of training for a discussion of attitudes about CBT, specific learning activities, and course content described in this commentary. Finally, self-reported changes in graduate students’ attitudes and behaviour following the course included a more favourable view of CBT as valuing the therapeutic relationship, as well as implementation of resources provided, and techniques learned and practised at practicum settings. Limitations and lessons learned are discussed through the lens of a model of adult learning that may be applied to future graduate training in evidence-based therapies like CBT.
Key learning aims
(1) To understand common myths about cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) that doctoral students in clinical psychology hold prior to entering a course in CBT.
(2) To understand the possible origins of these myths, factors that may address their impacts, and changes in attitudes and behaviour among graduate students as a result.
(3) To examine the lessons learned that can be applied to future training in evidence-based therapies like CBT.
This study explores the opinions of academic and practicing pharmacists about ways to prepare pharmacy students for disaster management to enable them to optimize their role in disaster health management.
Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted for data collection from April through June 2021. The research participants were 9 pharmacists who were involved in disaster management. The interview guide was developed following a comprehensive literature review on disaster management. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis.
The main themes identified are knowledge of health and disaster management, specific skills in disaster management, positive attitudes toward involvement in disaster management, and appropriate behavior in the face of a disaster, as well as personal readiness and training to achieve competence and readiness. Participants mentioned that special training in soft skills, especially communication and problem-solving, is essential for students.
Disaster-specific competencies and personal readiness through training can prepare pharmacy students for disaster management. Soft skills such as communication and problem-solving must be the highest priority.
New product development processes need to be compliant to regulatory requirements, and this chapter highlights the salient processes and quality systems to put into place to achieve success. Project management is made simple with specific tools provided here. Customer feedback is channeled into specific product characteristics, and the right tools are shown in this chapter. The biopharma industry has statistics showing less than 10% of starting compounds succeed in reaching market approval, and this chapter explains what causes these failures. The key issues that have repeatedly caused failure during device and diagnostic product development are also pointed out. Ethical decisions have to be made during product development as shown in this chapter. Outsourcing is a real option due to the availability of many contract research and manufacturing organizations, and judicious use of this option is discussed in this chapter. Key milestones that reduce risk and show transition from early stage to preclinical prototype stages are reviewed here. Does the popular concept of minimum viable product in software development apply in biomedicine prototyping? Other similar questions that help the reader understand pitfalls and best practices are answered here.
This chapter focuses on the dynamic Personal, Social and Community Health strand of the Australian Curriculum: Health and Physical Education and on health education and health promotion more generically. The chapter provides scaffolding for educators at all levels of education to provide health and wellbeing learning from a range of theoretical perspectives to individual and group (for instance, institutional and community) audiences. Health education is framed through a ‘social view of health’ lens while acknowledging personal and social responsibilities. A personalised inquiry approach focused on developing critical health literacies relevant to the students’ everyday lives and environments is recommended. Elements of teaching health education and promoting health, such as the educative purpose in constructing socially relevant health education programs that encompass student developmental needs and their interests, are discussed in depth.
If you are in a professional psychology training program, it is likely that you will be asked to be a clinical supervisor at some point in your career. In fact, based on an extensive survey of the members of the American Psychological Association (APA) division that represents clinical psychologists (Division 12; Society of Clinical Psychology), it was determined that clinical supervision is provided by 55 percent of university professors, 71 percent of hospital psychologists, and 36 percent of independent practitioners (Norcross et al., 2005). For many of you, this is an eagerly anticipated activity, and for others, it may be a source of some uncertainty or even anxiety. The purpose of this chapter is to demystify the idea of becoming a supervisor by providing broad theoretical models for conceptualizing the practice of supervision and practical suggestions to guide you through the process of learning to be a supervisor.
The mounting evidence for effective delivery of psychological interventions by non-specialists in low- and middle-income settings has led to a rapid expansion of mental health and psychosocial support trainings globally. As such, there is a demand for strategies on how to train and implement these services to attain adequate quality. This study aims to evaluate the added value of a competency-driven approach to training of facilitators for a group intervention for children with severe emotional distress in Lebanon.
In a controlled before and after study, 24 trainees were randomly allocated to participate in either a competency-driven training (CDT) or training-as-usual (TAU) (1 : 1) for a psychological intervention for children with severe emotional distress. We assessed the change in demonstrated competencies, using standardised role-plays, before and after the training. Measures included the 13-item Working with children-Assessment of Competencies Tool (WeACT), the 15-item ENhancing Assessment of Common Therapeutic factors (ENACT) and the 6-item Group facilitation: Assessment of Competencies Tool (GroupACT). The trainer in the experimental arm used pre-training and during training competency assessment scores to make real-time adjustment to training delivery. Due to COVID-19 pandemic restrictions, all activities were done remotely.
CDT resulted in significantly better outcomes on increasing competencies on the WeACT (repeated measures analysis of variance; F(1, 22) = 6.49, p < 0.018) and on the GroupACT (Mann–Whitney U = 22, p < 0.003), though not statistically significant on the ENACT. There is no significant between-group difference on the reduction of harmful behaviours, mainly because both forms of training appear equally successful in eliminating such behaviours.
This proof-of-concept study demonstrates the potential of CDT, using standardised assessment of trainee competencies, to contribute to better training outcomes without extending the duration of training. CDT can result in up to 18% greater increase in adequate competency, when compared to TAU. The study also yields recommendations for further enhancing the benefits of competency-driven strategies. A fully powered trial is needed to confirm these findings.
Identification of evidence-based factors related to status of the clinical research professional (CRP) workforce at academic medical centers (AMCs) will provide context for National Center for Advancing Translational Science (NCATS) policy considerations and guidance. The objective of this study is to explore barriers and opportunities related to the recruitment and retention of the CRP workforce.
Materials and Methods:
Qualitative data from a series of Un-Meeting breakout sessions and open-text survey questions were analyzed to explore barriers and recommendations for improving AMC CRP recruitment, retention and diversity.
While certain institutions have established competency-based frameworks for job descriptions, standardization remains generally lacking across CTSAs. AMCs report substantial increases in unfilled CRP positions leading to operational instability. Data confirmed an urgent need for closing gaps in CRP workforce at AMCs, especially for attracting, training, retaining, and diversifying qualified personnel. Improved collaboration with human resource departments, engagement with principal investigators, and overcoming both organizational and resource challenges were suggested strategies, as well as development of outreach to universities, community colleges, and high schools raising awareness of CRP career pathways.
Based on input from 130 CRP leaders at 35 CTSAs, four National Institute of General Medical Sciences’ Institutional Development Award (IDeA) program sites, along with industry and government representatives, we identified several barriers to successful recruitment and retention of a highly trained and diverse CRP workforce. Results, including securing institutional support, champions, standardizing and adopting proven national models, improving local institutional policies to facilitate CRP hiring and job progression point to potential solutions.
Following an overview of Quality Management concepts and the creation of a Quality Management System (QMS) there is a discussion of the principles of Accreditation and Accreditation schemes. The importance of training is emphasized, and the goal-orientated reiterative assessments apporach described, including defining criteria for competence as the endpoint of training. There are also discussion on quality control, measurement uncertainty, test method selection and comparison,laboratory equipment monitoring, and External Quality Assurance (EQA). A section on regulatory aspects includes a comparison between Standards (including the new ISO 23162) and guidelines. A final section describes a framework for validating new test methods.
The disaster preparedness of nurses is important as nurses are members of a health care team that needs to work systematically and collaboratively in all conditions. Although education and training naturally underpin effective practice, disaster nursing education is rarely provided to nurses in Iran. Because disaster situations, by definition, overwhelm health services, it is likely that nursing students will be required to join their colleagues in the response. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the competency of nursing students to attend disaster situations.
This descriptive, analytical study was conducted in western Iran in 2020. A total of 70 nursing students in the fourth (final) year of their undergraduate nursing education entered the study by a census sampling method. Data collection was undertaken using a validated disaster competency assessment questionnaire. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 21 (IBM Corp, Armonk, NY) with descriptive and analytic tests.
The mean age of participants was 21.4 ± 2.14 and 57.1% of them were women; 45 participants (64.3%) had received no disaster-related training, and 88.6% had no history of participating in disaster exercises. The total score for nursing students’ competence was 125.58 ± 14.19. There was a significant relationship between the mean score of nursing competence in response to disasters and student history of participating in an exercise and training course (P < 0.001).
Students’ competence in disaster situations is poor. Awareness of the competence condition of nurses is the first step to improve their preparedness as the most key members of the disaster health team. Conducting disaster-related training may be appropriate. The results of this study can provide evidence for the development of educational policies in disaster nursing education.
There are numerous ways to add value and make a contribution. We can offer gifts of the heart, the head, and the hand. We can provide emotional support, ideas, or tangible help. When it comes to adding value to our own lives, we can increase our happiness, study new things, find meaning in life, and develop physically and spiritually. There are really countless ways to make our life more exciting, goal-oriented, virtuous, and passionate, and it is up to each one of us to discover what actions will make that happen. Needless to say, our opportunities are influenced by the environment we live in. Some social ecologies are more supportive than others, but the aspiration to add value remains, regardless of the particular context. The needs to make a difference, to master the environment, and to express ourselves are well ingrained in all of us. We yearn to be in control of our destiny and to learn new skills. These needs are expressions of self-determination and the pursuit of meaning.
How can we tell that people are adding value? How do they add value to themselves? How do they help others? How do they achieve greatness in domains as varied as chess, music, sport, politics, business, physics, and literature? Excelling at friendship or parenting is part of interpersonal wellness. You want to be the best partner, friend, or parent that you can be. Shining in athletics is part of physical, occupational, and even psychological well-being. Leading social change is part of community wellness; your calling is to improve the social condition. Regardless of your particular focus, there are six investments you have to make. People who get better at anything invest in six things. We call them the six Ts: Transcendence: Going beyond the norm to pursue a passion and a purpose; Time: Dedicating thousands of hours; Thought: Concentrating and creating mental representations of the subject matter; Training: Practicing to reach stretch goals and acquire skills with a coach; Tenacity: Persevering and following through; and Trust: Believing in yourself, your mentors, and the process.
If young people are to be equipped to shape the future, then a key outcome of their learning experience needs to be the development of their own agency. Learners who have agency are purposive, reflective and action-oriented. Agency means developing goals, initiating action, reflecting on and regulating progress and belief in self-efficacy. Just like thriving, we can understand agency as a process or as an outcome of learning at a variety of levels: individual, collaborative and collective. Agency – and co-agency – are at the heart of the OECD Framework for Education and Skills 2030. Agency is central to transformational competencies: creating new value; taking responsibility; coping with tensions and trade-offs. In the school context, agency can be learned and exercised through stutdent voice, student leadership and student ownership of learning. Beyond the school walls, agency can be learned and exercised when students engage in community issues that matter. Some systems are now explicitly promoting agency with support resources and materials but government can do more to ensure that schools can promote learner agency while meeting regulative and accountability requirements.
The chapter examines attributes of public work environments that lead employees to develop ties to an organization's values. Empirical research indicates a supportive work environment is critical to sustaining public service motivation. Institutional arrangements promote employees’ basic psychological needs and create conditions for common pool resources. The chapter discusses two strategies for reinforcing supportive work environments: creating learning and growth opportunities and balancing job security and performance. Possibly the biggest key to promoting personal growth is creating opportunities for employee growth and learning throughout a career. Leadership development programs could also be offered to employees up and down the hierarchy. Finally, organizations should pay attention to subjective career success, ensuring that employees feel they are fulfilling their purpose in life. The chapter then examines strategies for developing organizational norms that balance job security with performance, including balancing performance and property rights, improving performance management systems and performance appraisals, and utilizing performance-based reductions in force.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is currently a global pandemic that has affected over 7 million people worldwide, resulting in over 400,000 deaths. In the past 20 years, they have been several viral epidemics that were primarily transmitted by respiratory droplets. The use of face masks is proven to be effective in protecting health-care workers as they perform their duties. Still, there is limited evidence about whether the widespread use of face mask would be very useful in protecting the general population. This study aimed to conduct a review to determine if face masks would be beneficial in the general population as a means of reducing the spread of COVID-19. The widespread implementation of wearing face masks by the general population is challenging due to a variety of factors. However, the extensive use of cloth masks in conjunction with other preventative measures such as social distancing and handwashing can potentially reduce the risk of transmission of COVID-19.
Global organizations demand a heterogeneous global talent pool. For decades, this talent pool has been dominated by what we consider traditional “there-and-back” expatriates, overseas assignees who are transferred to a host-country for three to four years and subsequently return to the home-country organization. To accommodate the pressures of globalization, it is argued that organizations today would benefit from a more dynamic talent pool which is composed of a cadre of managers that includes but also goes beyond the traditional expatriate. We speak of the global manager “family” which in addition to expatriates includes flexpatriates and inpatriates. Together these complimentary pools of talent help to facilitate the development of a global mindset among global managers that is necessary to compete beyond domestic borders. The mix of managers differs greatly relative to the duration of assignments, destinations, number of destinations, and commitment to the organization and career. As a result, we argue that each manager requires a combination of intercultural competencies or a “tool set” to reflect the demands of the assignment type which allows them to be successful in their roles. This chapter draws on a competency-based view to form the basis of the critical elements for building intercultural competency in global managers.
The UK’s Improving Access to Psychological Therapy Programme (IAPT) has improved transparency of primary mental health care in relation to the mandatory reporting of clinical outcomes. However, the data reveal a significant variance in outcomes. These findings have led to a growing body of research investigating to what extent therapist variables account for the difference in clinical outcomes. Previous studies have not had access to sufficient recordings or transcripts of therapy sessions in order to fully address this question. The purpose of this study was to use therapy transcripts derived from internet enabled cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) treatment sessions in order to investigate whether and how therapist variables are associated with clinical outcome. A hierarchical log-linear analysis examined the relationship between therapist/patient variables and clinical outcome. Therapist fidelity to the CBT model and associated adherence to an evidence-based protocol were significantly related to clinical outcome. A graphical representation of the statistical model suggests that patient recovery is directly linked with fidelity and indirectly with adherence, after adjusting for patient attributes of age, gender and clinical presentation. Corroborating previous research, therapist competence and adherence to an evidence-based treatment protocol appear to be important in improving outcomes. These findings have implications for the continuing professional development of qualified therapists, potentially reinforcing the importance of reducing therapist drift.
Key learning aims
(1) To develop an understanding in relation to which therapist variables are associated with clinical outcome in IAPT.
(2) To reflect on how fidelity to the CBT model and adherence to evidence-based treatment protocols may affect clinical outcomes.
(3) To exemplify use of a statistical method for enhanced visual understanding of complex multi-factorial data.
NHS Education for Scotland (NES) plays a lead role in training the NHS Psychological Therapies workforce across Scotland. Ferguson et al. (2016) outlined the challenges, opportunities and proposed evaluation of the NES Specialist Supervision Training in Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (NESSST-CBT). The aims of the training were to provide an evidence-based, flexible and learner-focused training in CBT specific supervision competencies. This paper will provide an update on the evaluation of the training using Kirkpatrick’s Impact Evaluation Model (1967, 1987). Results indicate that: (1) delegates rated the training experience positively in various ways; (2) delegates described increases in their confidence and competence in using structured measures of CBT and supervision; (3) a majority of delegates completing a 3-month follow-up questionnaire described continued use of a structured CBT measure in supervision and for self-reflection; and (4) 392 psychological therapists in Scotland have now been formally trained in CBT specific supervision skills. NESSST-CBT continues to adapt and improve as a resource for staff as NES moves forward in its Digital Strategy for Scotland’s NHS and partnership staff. Further implications of this are discussed, as well as limitations of the study.
Key learning aims
(1) Readers will be able to further understand the multi-faceted role of NHS Education for Scotland in implementing CBT supervision training in Scotland.
(2) Readers will be able to list three key outcomes from the feedback data on 4 years of a specialist supervision blended-learning training for CBT supervision.
(3) Readers will be able to identify three key limitations of the study and recommendations for future research.
The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in the perception of disaster issues between disaster directors and general health care providers in Gyeonggi Province, South Korea.
The Gyeonggi provincial committee distributed a survey to acute care facility personnel. Survey topics included awareness of general disaster issues, hospital preparedness, and training priorities. The questionnaire comprised multiple choices and items scored on a 10-point Likert scale. We analyzed the discrepancies and characteristics of the responses.
Completed surveys were returned from 43 (67%) of 64 directors and 145 (55.6%) of 261 health care providers. In the field of general awareness, the topic of how to triage in disaster response showed the greatest discrepancies. In the domain of hospital level disaster preparedness, individual opinions varied most within the topics of incident command, manual preparation. The responses to “accept additional patients in disaster situation” showed the biggest differences (> 21 versus 6~10).
In this study, there were disaster topics with discrepancies and concordances in perception between disaster directors and general health care providers. The analysis would present baseline information for the development of better training programs for region-specific core competencies, knowledge, and skills required for the effective response.
High rates of mortality and morbidity result from disasters of all types, including armed conflicts. Overwhelming numbers of casualties with a myriad of illnesses and patterns of injuries are common in armed conflicts, leading to unpredictable workloads for hospital health care providers (HCPs). Identifying domains of hospital HCPs’ core competency for armed conflicts is essential to inform standards of care, educational requirements, and to facilitate the translation of knowledge into safe and quality care.
The objective of this study is to identify the common domains of core competencies among HCPs working in hospitals in armed conflict areas.
A scoping review was conducted using the Joanna Briggs Institute framework. The review considered primary research and peer-reviewed literature from the following databases: Ovid Medline, Ovid EmCare, Embase, and CINAHL, as well as the reference lists of articles identified for full-text review. Eligibility criteria were outlined a priori to guide the literature selection.
Four articles met the inclusion criteria. The studies were conducted in different countries and were published from 2011 through 2017. The methods included three surveys and one Delphi study.
This review maps the scope of knowledge, skills, and attitudes required by HCPs who are practicing in hospitals in areas of major armed conflict. Incorporation of identified core competency domains can improve the future planning, education, and training, and may enhance the HCPs’ response in armed conflicts.