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This chapter probes how old, conflicted, and fragmented social units in an island settlement came to be integrated after the era of military control ended, and how they formed a new community through the process of temple building.
Remembering is also the theme of Hegel’s Phenomenology of Spirit (1807) but of a different kind than Schelling’s. It is not of a cosmic event; nor does it yield a theogony. The issue for Hegel is rather the actualization of the historical human individual and of humanity accordingly, and the remembering is of how being rational affects an individual’s relation to nature. At origin this relation is worked out unconsciously. It is visibly reflected, however, in the sense of self-identity into which an individual is historically born, just as one is born into a family. To retrieve the source of the identity, thus to make it deliberately one’s own – by the same token to make of nature a work of intelligence – is the factor that motivates experience. Chapter 5 contrasts Schelling’s and Hegel’s respective ideas of history. It then proceeds with a detailed examination of the Phenomenology up to the section on Religion. It argues that, while in some ways a work of conceptual fiction, the Phenomenology must nonetheless have historical anchoring and logical significance. It also underscores the debt Hegel owes to Fichte that makes him quite different from Schelling.
This chapter examines Gwendolyn Brooks’s representation of everyday African American lives in what was at midcentury affectionately known as “Bronzeville.” Her literature elevates the ways these people – especially Black women – found meaning and value in their regular lives, even as they lived in the shadow of a disinterested and segregated city. With a focus on Brooks’s first collection of poetry, A Street in Bronzeville, and her novel, Maud Martha, this chapter explores how Brooks’s writing exemplifies humanism and places it in the same populist Chicago tradition of Carl Sandburg, while also maintaining ties to the sociologically informed neighborhood writing of Richard Wright, James T. Farrell, and Nelson Algren. Even though Brooks did not define herself as an African American humanist, she engages with some of its core concepts. Namely, she shows how Black people challenge Christian ideals and how they process death and loss without relying on religious doctrines. Instead, Brooks’s characters look inward and toward their community for aid and redemption.
The state and the law seem to be inextricably intertwined: The state is often identified with its legislative and adjudicative capacities. Law and legal institutions are likewise associated with public authority, conjuring the image of public courts and state law. But technological and social transformations, characterizing the modern age, pose a growing challenge to the connection between these two institutions. One type of challenge is posed by globalization, especially in this age of new information, which paves the way for legal transactions that traverse territorial boundaries and/or that occur in the stateless realm of cyberspace. Legal institutions whose jurisdictions are delineated according to geopolitical lines cannot adequately regulate behavior in a world in which physical-geographic location is gradually becoming irrelevant.
In the titles and subtitles of David Jasper’s ‘sacred trilogy’ the word ‘sacrament’ appears only in his third book, but Jasper adopts the language of sacrament throughout to designate the way that transcendent reality becomes wholly immanent and gives rise to silence. Sacrament is thus no longer understood to be a manifestation of the divine through a material thing but as the silence of what Jasper names as “Total Presence”, instantiated in both the textual body of the world and in human bodies that make a journey into the desert place. This sacramental phenomenon comes to a focus in the text of poetry, novels, the visual arts and music. This chapter reflects on the extent to which this refiguring of sacrament might enable us to re-think the boundary between the ‘sacred’ and the ‘secular’ which seems to persist in our late-modern age. It does so by developing five themes in relation to sacrament: the death of God and universality; the sacred; inside/outside of the text; participating in Christ; and community.
This chapter reflects on the theological virtue of hope in the Christian community and how it must be distinguished from mere optimism. Rather than seeing hope as a result of faith, the author proposes to consider both hope and faith from within the horizon of love. In paying particular attention to the transformative spirit of hope in the church, the chapter is written in dialogue with David Jasper’s ecclesiological reflections in his Trilogy.
This chapter provides the framework for the book’s analysis of the ICTR’s archive. First it establishes, theoretically, the link between archives, and the formation of community, as the archive is presented as a site where the themes of law, knowledge and governance coalesce. Second, it looks at other scholarly work on international courts for insights on the interrelationship between law, knowledge and governance and argues that this work has, to date, wrongly treated courts as sites of ‘knowledge deficit’, and further that there is a need to understand how the inner workings of the court contribute to the formation of particular types of community. Finally, drawing on Foucault and Ann Stoler’s work, it shows how the archive can function as an analytical and methodological tool to examine the politics of knowledge production in international courts.
By exploring the uniquely dense urban network of the Low Countries, Janna Coomans debunks the myth of medieval cities as apathetic towards filth and disease. Based on new archival research and adopting a bio-political and spatial-material approach, Coomans traces how cities developed a broad range of practices to protect themselves and fight disease. Urban societies negotiated challenges to their collective health in the face of social, political and environmental change, transforming ideas on civic duties and the common good. Tasks were divided among different groups, including town governments, neighbours and guilds, and affected a wide range of areas, from water, fire and food, to pigs, prostitutes and plague. By studying these efforts in the round, Coomans offers new comparative insights and bolsters our understanding of the importance of population health and the physical world - infrastructures, flora and fauna - in governing medieval cities.
Growing evidence studying pathological online behaviour has shown an increasing rate of internet addictions in younger populations across the globe.
The current study aims to investigate the prevalence of smartphone internet addiction of youths in Hong Kong, and its associations with gender and depression.
A total of 1,164 participants’ preliminary data were extracted from the Hong Kong Youth Epidemiological Study of Mental Health, a territory-wide, household-based study of mental health in youths aged between 15-24. Internet usage behaviors, socio-demographic and psychosocial characteristics of the participants were assessed. The Chen Internet Addiction Scale was modified to measure smartphone internet addiction (SIA). Symptoms of depression were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire. Mann-Whitney U tests were used to examine (i) SIA across gender and (ii) depressive symptoms between high and no to low SIA groups. Linear regression model was used to evaluate the association between SIA and depression.
The prevalence of smartphone internet addiction was 27.8% using the cut-off scores of 67/68. Women had higher SIA scores than men (U=144239.50, p=0.001). Participants with high SIA were associated with a higher severity in depression than those with no-to-low SIA (U=89187.00, p<0.001). Regression analysis revealed a significant positive correlation between depression and SIA after adjusting for confounding factors (B=0.099, t=9.138, p<0.001).
Our findings suggest a gender difference on online behaviour using smartphones. Further investigations are needed on whether SIA may exacerbate severity of common mental disorders.
Psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) are often referred to as psychotic experiences, such as hallucinations and delusions, in the absence of a psychotic disorder. PLEs as part of the continuum of psychosis suggested that healthy population can endorse PLEs without having significant distress or impairment which would warrant them a clinical diagnosis. While PLEs are usually associated with psychotic disorders, previous research has also shown the link between PLEs and many other mood symptoms.
The present study aims to identify PLEs in community youths and explore the underlying risk and protective factors.
This is an ongoing study in which young people aged 15-24 were recruited from community through a random stratified sampling method. Sociodemographic, lifestyle, functioning, and other psychosocial factors were assessed in a face-to-face structured interview. In particular, PLEs were assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview Screening Scales (CIDI-SC). Six domains of lifetime PLEs were measured, including auditory and visual hallucination, thought insertion/ withdrawal, delusion of control and reference, and persecutory delusions.
To date, 746 participants were recruited and of these, 3.2% of them has endorsed lifetime PLEs. Results showed that significantly higher depressive, anxiety and stress scores were found in those who has PLEs (p<0.001), and additionally, these scores significantly predicted the presence of PLEs in regression models (p<0.001).
Our preliminary findings highlighted the inter-related phenomena between PLEs and mood symptoms. Further investigation is needed to examine the likelihood of PLEs in predicting psychosis over time.
The chapter extends a third-wave perspective to the sociolinguistic study of multiethnolects. It presents an ethnographic study of variation in an ethnically diverse social housing neighborhood in Denmark. The chapter reports on and discusses analyses of variation in the use of multiethnolect features and the regional dialect (called Funen) with a particular focus on the supra-segmental features ‘multiethnolect staccato’ and ‘Funen intonation’, and the segmental variables (t) and (et). It is shown that multiethnolect features become locally meaningful in contrast to not only standard language, but also the regional dialect. The notion of ‘multiethnolect’ is discussed in a third-wave perspective, and it is argued that we need to look at relations between people, groups, and places, and between varieties and variables.
In a number of colourful episodes, Cassius Dio narrates the behaviour and fates of the Roman collective. He treats it as a symbolic entity that serves to illustrate the state of the Roman political community under monarchic rule, from the dynasteiai through the Severans. Inextricably linked to their rulers like limbs to the head, the Roman ‘people’ is the first victim of their vices and the ultimate judge of their character. The Roman collective is portrayed as a sentient organism, ideally solemn and passive but stirred to restless, destructive action by perverse events. All such events ultimately emanate from the emperors, and the people’s behaviour is thus a direct reflection of their character. ‘People’ scenes form part of the biographies of autocrats and represent Dio’s own creative additions. They are not a source to the historical roles and actions of the actual people of Rome, but a literary device used as a means to narrate a larger, moral truth about Rome’s political leadership.
theory of art in the conventional sense. He does not provide a systematic account of art, nor does he provide criteria for aesthetic judgment. He is concerned rather with the role art plays in forming our culture and its meaning in our individual and communal lives. This chapter situates Gadamer’s views in the context of the history of philosophy–the ancient Greek view of art and the modern views of art, especially the view of Kant. For Gadamer, art is an event of understanding. The concepts of play and the game are important to his account. This chapter considers the temporal, the dialogical, and the communal aspects of art for Gadamer. It considers arts claim to truth. And finally, it shows how Gadamer thinks that art has an important transformative potential.
Why does a sound change spread faster among one group of people than another? While variationist sociolinguistics was founded on the idea that a variant’s social meaning might be part of the answer, the proposal is still the source of active debate. Eckert (2008, 2012) calls for a renewed focus on social meaning, articulating the core interest of ‘third wave’ research. Here, we join some recent work that highlights the benefits of combining analytic perspectives from all of Eckert’s (2012) three waves, particularly with respect to the study of sound change. By directly comparing insights from parallel analyses of the same data, we argue that all sound change researchers can potentially benefit from considering a third-wave perspective, in the sense that social change results in indexical change, and this may explain the trajectory of a sound change. Our data come from white and Chinese American residents of San Francisco’s Sunset District, recorded in 2008. As with the COT-CAUGHT merger (Hall-Lew 2013), focus on social change over time suggests that the individuals who came of age during the peak of social change are key to mapping the trajectory of GOAT-fronting.
The city's 'Americanness' has been disputed throughout US history. Pronounced dead in the late twentieth century, cities have enjoyed a renaissance in the twenty-first. Engaging the history of urban promise and struggle as represented in literature, film, and visual arts, and drawing on work in the social sciences, The City in American Literature and Culture examines the large and local forces that shape urban space and city life and the street-level activity that remakes culture and identities as it contests injustice and separation. The first two sections examine a range of city spaces and lives; the final section brings the city into conversation with Marxist geography, critical race studies, trauma theory, slow/systemic violence, security theory, posthumanism, and critical regionalism, with a coda on city literature and democracy.
This chapter explores urban prose, poetry and painting that moves from sense impressions of city streets to statements about American social and political conditions. A strain of American culture, from Ashcan School painting through James Baldwin’s essays on Harlem to Don DeLillo’s set-piece performative protests, insists that the nation’s politics take shape and moods register on city streets. It argues that certain, primarily literary, forms, through their close attention to, and lucid expression of, the way streets feel offer access to experiences that range from jostling crowds to organized protests to violent confrontations. Where the flâneur pursues urban aesthetics and impressions in the spirit of dilettantism, Henry James restlessly analyses New York’s metropolitan scale; insiders and outsiders probe the tensions that shape ethnic enclaves; and in Tillie Olsen’s strike journalism and E. L. Doctorow’s political fiction of mass protests are at once inspiring and monstrous. Where Doctorow and DeLillo describe postmodern withdrawal from the street as a site of meaning, the chapter ends with its reemergence with Occupy and other recent protest movements.
This chapter analyzes novels set in gentrifying US neighborhoods to propose that the novel’s complex, dialogic system offers opportunities for exploring the negotiations between structure and individual agency that precipitate processes of gentrification. Adept as the novel is at representing a diverse range of subjectivities and interpersonal relations, stories of gentrification must also show how subjecthood is molded by larger historical, political, and economic forces. The texts are read through close attention to genre, treated neither as a taxonomy of fixed structures nor a concept so anarchic as to be practically non-existent, but as a form of textuality emerging through negotiations between communities comprised of individual genre consumers with specific preferences, and the industries producing texts for consumption. Thus, genre is a useful lens for exploring similar interactions between structure and agency underlying gentrification. There is no single genre of gentrification novel. Rather, the best examples bring genres and modes such as the frontier story and the picturesque into collision or merger in order to show gentrification’s effects on different communities.
In this chapter, we propose a material–semiotic epistemological approach to understand the changing senses of place resulting from socio-environmental disasters. This perspective involves investigating the simultaneously symbolic, corporeal and geographical relations that characterise the production of new senses of place in post-disaster contexts. We propose the notion of assemblage as a conceptual tool to understand how senses of place are generated within a complex and dynamic network of influences and reciprocal variations between subjective, social and spatial aspects, articulating at the same time the relationship between individual experiences of place and social and institutional processes. To present, discuss and illustrate this material–semiotic approach, we draw on a part of the results of a study conducted in Chile, addressing multiple case studies of post-disaster situations.
This research study explored the experiences of children (aged 9–10 years), from four different primary schools, playing a hunting game in a nature reserve. Previous research shows that children’s play in green spaces can provide a number of benefits to children. However, there is a lack of research into children’s experiences of playing in bio-diverse environments. This study sought to find out how children (aged 9–10 years) “playing” the role of animals in a nature reserve could enable them to experience different ways of being and different ways of understanding their relationship with the world around them. The study employed a qualitative phenomenological design that aimed to interpret the first-person lived experiences of the children playing in the nature reserve. Four classes from four different primary schools took part in the study. Six children from each class were interviewed and analysis of their responses generated a number of different themes. The results suggest that playing the hunting game in a biodiverse environment does offer states of being and knowings that are not as accessible in schools. Playing the role of an animal had afforded the children with an accentuated, embodied experience, offering insight into the otherness of the more-than-human world.
The 1937 manifesto “Blueprint for Negro Writing” is typically regarded as a programmatic articulation of the literary and aesthetic principles for the kind of socially engaged literature Richard Wright believed a modern Black writer ought to produce. This reading of the text assumes, however, an internally coherent argument that it does not entirely warrant. Indeed, I argue that the “Blueprint” is substantially haunted by a fear of alienation and isolation that tends to undermine its purportedly communalist politics. When read in the context of the vexed coterie politics of Dorothy West’s New Challenge magazine where it first appeared, as well as the edits and alternative draft notes in the archive, Wright’s attitude assumes a far more doubtful, and even vulnerable posture. This revised understanding of a key document in Wright’s oeuvre opens it—and by extension the early fiction as well—to new directions in Wright scholarship, especially those concerned with the intersection of race, affect, and alienation.