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At one level or another, by one means or another, for one reason or another, a higher percentage of the population of western Europe was engaged with books and other forms of the printed word in the nineteenth century than at any time previously. In this as in most things, the various countries were not equal. Experience varied from region to region, from town to town and among different social groups. It depended on literacy rates, on transport and communication, on manufacturing capability, on education, on the requirements of everyday life whether in government, religion or social assumptions and practices.
In the 1690s, Ottoman bureaucrats reformed the sprawling postal system, a vital communications infrastructure that undergirded imperial power. Despite the expanding monitoring capacity that resulted, a constant shortage of horses regularly left couriers stranded for days and delayed official correspondence. This essay investigates this paradox and draws on a series of fifty-one Ottoman imperial decrees and reports from 1690 to 1833 to make three arguments. It first shows how bureaucrats perceived and tried to fix the problem by rationing horse usage and strengthening enforcement of rules. Second, it reveals that a range of official and non-official actors were diverting horses toward profit-making ventures in what I call a “shadow economy.” Third, it explains why Ottoman bureaucrats were unable to recognize the existence of this shadow economy. Like contemporary administrators in Qing China who found it hard to synthesize intelligence from different frontiers, Ottoman bureaucrats treated multiple reports of missing horses as discrete, unconnected events rather than connected evidence of a competing market demand for horses. Compounding this problem of a blinkered informational order, profound economic and social changes meant that bureaucrats in the capital were slow to realize that long-held official entitlements regarding horse usage for personal uses were aiding the growth of the shadow economy. I conclude by considering some social consequences of commercial forces in Ottoman society and contemporary France, and the stakes of this study with respect to the rise of anonymity in market exchanges, a property of capitalism.
One of the most striking developments of this period was the rise and success of the official lottery, first staged in 1694. Prior to its abolition in 1823 – the last official lottery was held in 1826 – the lottery represented state-sanctioned gambling, as well spawning a whole host of derivative gambling activities. This chapter explains the operations of the lottery, in particular the markets for lottery tickets as they developed very rapidly from the 1690s, and grew to encompass the whole of Britain, penetrating deep down into as well as across British society. It emphasizes how far the early development of the lottery marketplace was enfolded within the contemporaneous financial revolution. From early on, however, it also owed much to widely diffused entrepreneurial spirit and energies, in particular those of the lottery office keepers and their proliferating agents. The lottery was thus another facet of the accelerating commercialization of British society in this period, as well as a leading exploiter of the new power of publicity unleashed by a relatively free and ebullient print industry. From newspapers to hastily printed single-sheet handbills, publicity was key to stoking contemporary interest in and demand for the lottery and its various derivatives.
Chapter 4 provides the fullest discussion to date of the range of formal devices employed in the Tour. It suggests that Defoe enlists these to build up a regional scheme that will unify his picture of the nation, parallel in some ways to the zones into which modern British highways are divided, with a map to illustrate the process. A table and a map show the larger towns in Britain around 1700, with a population of 5,000 or more, as a basis for discussion of Defoe’s coverage of urban settlements. Further, the chapter provides a comparison with the methods used in previous travel writing, such as antiquarians (John Leland, William Camden) and subsequent authors of literary journeys (for example, Celia Fiennes, John Macky, William Cobbett). It defines the originality of the work within the history of this genre by means of a semiotic square, adapted from the schema developed by A.J. Greimas.
The spatial distribution of collaborative targets and the information collaboration process are two important factors affecting the efficiency of real-time collaborative navigation. Addressing these factors, this paper presents the following work. First, the collaborative communication process between navigation targets is designed and illustrated with an application example. Second, the feature and error condition of the spatial distribution of collaborative targets is analysed. Then, a method based on CGDOP (collaborative geometric dilution of precision) value is proposed for the evaluation of the actual spatial distribution conditions of collaborative targets. Finally, a simulated experiment is conducted to evaluate the collaborative navigation process and the collaboration effect of the collaborative navigation network in different spatial shapes. Overall, the results of this study optimised the observation and application efficiency of navigation data, and improved the stability and reliability of real-time navigation service through multi-target collaborative navigation.
This chapter begins with a message about the importance of diagnoses before developing a marcoms campaign. We then use the idea of communication barriers to help explain why creating an effective marcoms campaign is so challenging, before providing a broad understanding of what integrated marketing communications (IMC) is and why it is used. The chapter discusses both the theory and practice of achieving integration and synergy, and how synergistic effects come about. The managerial application of integration is also discussed, and its complexity is brought to life with the award-winning case of 'Magnum Gold?!' This chapter also provides a nine-step IMC planning model, including the importance of understanding how consumers make decisions. The consumer decision journey is suggested as a useful model, illustrated with another award-winning case involving the Korean car maker, Hyundai, which broke into the consideration set of United States car buyers during the global financial crisis.
We have now come to the end of the book, with much discussion and a lot to absorb along the way. As we noted in chapter 1, the philosophy that marcoms campaigns must be both effective and efficient underpins this book. To be effective and efficient, many elements need to work together. This integrative review chapter provides an overview of the lessons you have learned in this book, summarised into different core themes. Yet this knowledge is useless if they cannot be implemented. In this chapter, we also discuss why IMC implementations have often failed. Finally, we conclude with a word on ethics in IMC and a look into the future of marketing as it becomes more technologically driven.
The chapter is about brand positioning, one of the most important concepts in advertising. We can think of positioning as akin to impression management, first discussed by sociologist Ervin Goffman in the 1950s. Impression management means that we present a certain image of ourselves to others, which serves a functional (or instrumental) purpose. In Goffman’s terms, brand positioning is an impression we want to evoke in the mind of the target audience about the brand. In creating this impression, we also sometimes re-create an impression of competing brands, and this is where the topic of positioning becomes especially interesting. Ultimately, positioning is about creating an impression that allows a brand to differentiate itself from its competition. The objective is to create brand associations that will predispose people to choose the brand over others, and ultimately to build brand equity. If all subsequent executions are well implemented, then consumers will come to prefer a brand over the competition. This, in essence, is the ultimate goal of positioning and branding.
The aim of this chapter is to give the reader a better understanding of the principles of influence in personal selling. Personal selling is especially important for high-involvement purchases. The chapter outlines the steps involved with special emphasis paid to effective presentation and handling of objections, including multi-attribute reframing, selling the ‘improved value’ and selling the ‘vision’. Also discussed in this chapter are the subtle, yet powerful principles of compliance seeking tactics. For long-term success, though, a sales agent needs to be trustworthy, and we discuss the factors that make a sales agent more trustworthy. We then present a model that summarises the many paths that lead to effective persuasion.
Humans are social animals: we influence and are influenced by each other. Traditional models of marketing communications do not place much weight on social influence, but with the rise of social media and social commerce, companies are beginning to take this form of communication seriously. This chapter presents a way of thinking about IMC that incorporates these modern communication methods and the broader principle of social influence. The chapter starts by providing some context: it outlines how information flows and introduces some basic principles that govern behaviour in social networks. It then delves into the more substantial issues: what social media is, what its four core characteristics are, and how organisations have exploited these. This is followed by a close examination of certain types of social communication, such as WOM, buzz and viral marketing. The emphasis throughout the chapter is on understanding the preconditions necessary for what we call ‘viral contagion’ to occur. This leads to a discussion of social commerce.
This chapter and chapter 6 are about advertising, which is a paid form of communication by a sponsor. The aim of this chapter is to give the reader a better understanding of creativity and its importance to advertising. Although advertising is only one marcoms tool, it is the most important tool for brand (re)positioning. However, for advertising to be effective, it must possess the creative power to cut through the noise and clutter. The chapter explores the importance of advertising creativity and sets out how to get it right. This is a complex area because our processing of a creative ad can be completely hijacked by unintended associations, which are not uncommon when we attempt anything original. To minimise this, a marcoms manager needs to understand the theory of advertising creativity, as well as how to nurture the emergence of the creative idea, which must be guided by a creative strategy summarised in a creative brief.
In chapter 6, we discussed what an advertising creative idea is and how to increase the probability of finding the big idea. But what happens after that? Ideally, we should pre-test the idea (see chapter 12). But to do so, we need to first create the ad, sometimes called ‘execution’. Things can still go wrong if the creative idea is not well executed, no matter how good it is. For instance, if the copy is difficult to comprehend, the humour is irrelevant, or the celebrity chosen does not fit the brand and so on. The aim of this chapter is to discuss how executional tactics can be used effectively. The discussion centres on what creative execution means and explains the difference between creative execution and the creative idea, stressing that executions must be guided by the creative idea. Under some circumstances, the creative execution is also the creative idea. We will also discuss different types of executional tactics and how to use them properly.
In the past decade, the media landscape has changed dramatically affecting how marcoms are implemented. The media has become fragmented and is increasingly digitised. Consumers can now instantly access brand information from multiple websites using multiple devices, and this is not counting the rise of social media. The job of a marcoms manager has become extremely complex. But here is the good news: it also means greater creative possibilities. The objective of this chapter is to help a marcoms manager negotiate this complexity. To this end, the marcoms manager should understand the strengths and weaknesses of different communication channels and be guided by a set of principles.
Marketing in the digital age poses major challenges for traditional and established practices of communication. To help readers meet these challenges Principles of Integrated Marketing Communications: An Evidence-based Approach provides a comprehensive foundation to the principles and practices of integrated marketing communications (IMC). It examines a variety of traditional and digital channels used by professionals to create wide-reaching and effective campaigns that are adapted for the aims of their organisations. This edition has been thoroughly revised and each chapter includes: case studies of significant and award-winning campaigns from both Australian and international brands that illustrate the application of explored concepts; discussion and case study questions that enable readers to critically evaluate concepts and campaigns; a managerial application section that illustrates how concepts can be applied effectively in a real situation; a 'further thinking' section that expands knowledge of advanced concepts and challenges readers to think more broadly about IMC.