To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Clinicians routinely use impressions of speech as an element of mental status examination. In schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, descriptions of speech are used to assess the severity of psychotic symptoms. In the current study, we assessed the diagnostic value of acoustic speech parameters in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, as well as its value in recognizing positive and negative symptoms.
Speech was obtained from 142 patients with a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder and 142 matched controls during a semi-structured interview on neutral topics. Patients were categorized as having predominantly positive or negative symptoms using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Acoustic parameters were extracted with OpenSMILE, employing the extended Geneva Acoustic Minimalistic Parameter Set, which includes standardized analyses of pitch (F0), speech quality and pauses. Speech parameters were fed into a random forest algorithm with leave-ten-out cross-validation to assess their value for a schizophrenia-spectrum diagnosis, and PANSS subtype recognition.
The machine-learning speech classifier attained an accuracy of 86.2% in classifying patients with a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder and controls on speech parameters alone. Patients with predominantly positive v. negative symptoms could be classified with an accuracy of 74.2%.
Our results show that automatically extracted speech parameters can be used to accurately classify patients with a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder and healthy controls, as well as differentiate between patients with predominantly positive v. negatives symptoms. Thus, the field of speech technology has provided a standardized, powerful tool that has high potential for clinical applications in diagnosis and differentiation, given its ease of comparison and replication across samples.
This is the first study of Renaissance architecture as an immersive, multisensory experience that combines historical analysis with the evidence of first-hand accounts. Questioning the universalizing claims of contemporary architectural phenomenologists, David Karmon emphasizes the infinite variety of meanings produced through human interactions with the built environment. His book draws upon the close study of literary and visual sources to prove that early modern audiences paid sustained attention to the multisensory experience of the buildings and cities in which they lived. Through reconstructing the Renaissance understanding of the senses, we can better gauge how constant interaction with the built environment shaped daily practices and contributed to new forms of understanding. Architecture and the Senses in the Italian Renaissance offers a stimulating new approach to the study of Renaissance architecture and urbanism as a kind of 'experiential trigger' that shaped ways of both thinking and being in the world.
The purpose of this article was to determine the impact of employing a telephone clinic for follow-up of patients with stable lateral skull-base tumours.
An analysis of 1515 patients in the national lateral skull-base service was performed, and 148 patients enrolled in the telephone clinic to date were identified. The length of time that patients waited for results of their follow-up scans and the travel distance saved by patients not having to attend the hospital for their results was determined.
The mean time from scan to receiving results was 30.5 ± 32 days, 14 days sooner than in the face-to-face group (p = 0.0016). The average round-trip distance travelled by patients to the hospital for results of their scans was 256 ± 131 km.
The telephone clinic led to a significant reduction in time until patients received their scan results and helped reduce travel distance and clinic numbers in traditional face-to-face clinics.
Chapter 3 is a general, rather short and partly descriptive introduction to general wave theory, without application of any differential equation. The emphasis is on mechanical waves, e.g., acoustic waves.
Respiratory monitoring utilizing pulse oximetry and expired carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement has been an operating room standard since the 1980s. Post-anesthesia and intensive care units adopted pulse oximetry shortly thereafter and only recently have embraced expired CO2 monitoring. However, there remains a need for monitoring the respiratory function of patients in low-intensity hospital environments (i.e., other than operating rooms, post-anesthesia care units, or intensive care units), since they frequently experience respiratory compromise that may progress, require tracheal intubation, and may deteriorate to cardiopulmonary arrest. This is especially true in patients with obesity, obstructive sleep apnea, and opioid administration, which are common risk factors. Monitoring for respiratory compromise in low-intensity environments, however, is challenging. This chapter addresses the use of pulse oximetry, expired CO2, photoplethysmography, bioimpedance, and acoustic monitoring in these settings.
This article overviews the ultrasonic welding process, a solid-state joining method, using the example of welding of a magnesium alloy as well as the joining of magnesium alloys in general. In situ high-speed imaging and infrared thermography were utilized to study interfacial relative motion and heat generation during ultrasonic spot welding of AZ31B magnesium (Mg) alloys. A postweld ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation was performed to study the evolution of local bond formation at the faying interface (contact surface of the joint between the top and bottom Mg sheets) at different stages of the welding process. Two distinct stages were observed as the welding process progresses. In the early stage, localized reciprocating sliding occurred at the contact faying interface between the two Mg sheets, resulting in localized rapid temperature rise from the localized frictional heating. Microscale (submillimeter) bonded regions at the Mg–Mg faying surface started to form, but the overall joint strength was low. The early-stage localized bonds were broken during the subsequent vibrations. In the later stage, no relative motion occurred at any points of the faying interface. Localized bonded regions coalesced into a macroscale joint that was strong enough to prevent the Mg–Mg interface from further breakage and sliding. With increasing welding time, the bonded area continued to increase.
We are in the midst of a transformation in the way that biodiversity is observed on the planet. The approach of direct human observation, combining efforts of both professional and citizen scientists, has recently generated unprecedented amounts of data on species distributions and populations. Within just a few years, however, we believe that these data will be swamped by indirect biodiversity observations that are generated by autonomous sensors and machine learning classification models. In this commentary, we discuss three important elements of this shift towards indirect, technology driven observations. First, we note that the biodiversity data sets available today cover a very small fraction of all places and times that could potentially be observed, which suggests the necessity of developing new approaches that can gather such data at even larger scales, with lower costs. Second, we highlight existing tools and efforts that are already available today to demonstrate the promise of automated methods to radically increase biodiversity data collection. Finally, we discuss one specific outstanding challenge in automated biodiversity survey methods, which is how to extract useful knowledge from observations that are uncertain in nature. Throughout, we focus on one particular type of biodiversity data - point occurrence records - that are frequently produced by citizen science projects, museum records and systematic biodiversity surveys. As indirect observation methods increase the spatiotemporal scope of these point occurrence records, ecologists and conservation biologists will be better able to predict shifting species distributions, track changes to populations over time and understand the drivers of biodiversity occurrence.
Ultrasonic sonochemistry and pulsed laser ablation in liquids (LAL) are modern techniques for materials synthesis that are in different ways linked to the formation and collapse of cavitation bubbles. We provide an overview of the physics of laser-induced and acoustically driven bubble oscillations and then describe how the high pressures and temperatures associated with ablation and bubble collapse, as well as emitted shock waves, take part in material synthesis inside and around the bubble. Emphasis is placed on the mechanisms of sonochemical synthesis and modification, and on a step-by-step account of the events from laser ablation through interaction of ablation products with the surrounding liquid up to the modification or aggregation of particles within the bubble. Both sonochemistry and LALs yield nanostructured materials and colloidal nanoparticles with unique properties. The synthesis process has been demonstrated to be scalable.
This article focuses on the acoustic-wave enhancement of chemisorption and surface reactions. Acoustic waves generated by a piezoelectric phenomenon on ferroelectric crystals by the application of radio frequency electric power produce periodic lattice distortions at the surface. The effects of surface acoustic waves (SAWs) and the resonance oscillation (RO) of bulk acoustic waves on thin films of metals or metal oxides are described herein. Both SAWs and RO can modify the work functions of thin Ag, Au, or Pd films, and this effect is highly dependent on the surface structures. These changes in the work function can, in turn, affect the adsorptive characteristics of the metals as well as surface reactions and properties such as catalysis. The importance of periodic lattice displacement vertical to the surface is examined in this article, and the acoustic-wave enhancement of metal and metal oxide surfaces as a means of tuning electronic states and chemical properties is discussed.
The coupling of acoustic energy with materials structures and processes is at the core of such current and emerging application areas as ultrasound-enabled materials characterization, structuring, and processing. High concentration of acoustic energy, such as upon the collapse of a cavitation bubble, has been shown to provide conditions for the synthesis of unusual material phases and structures, while intriguing reports on acoustic activation of surface diffusion, desorption, and catalysis hold high promise for applications where heating must be avoided or rapid switching of surface conditions is required. Some of the recent scientific and technical advances in the general area of acoustically enabled materials synthesis, processing, and characterization are reviewed in this issue of MRS Bulletin. Additional discussion of experimental data and computational results providing insights into the fundamental mechanisms and channels of the acoustic energy coupling to atomic-scale surface features and adsorbates is also provided in this article.
Structure–property relationships are the foundation of materials science and are essential for predicting material response to driving forces, managing in-service material degradation, and engineering materials for optimal performance. Elastic, thermal, and acoustic properties provide a convenient gateway to directly or indirectly probe materials structure across multiple length scales. This article will review how using the laser-induced transient grating spectroscopy (TGS) technique, which uses a transient diffraction grating to generate surface acoustic waves and temperature gratings on a material surface, nondestructively reveals the material’s elasticity, thermal diffusivity, and energy dissipation on the sub-microsecond time scale, within a tunable subsurface depth. This technique has already been applied to many challenging problems in materials characterization, from analysis of radiation damage, to colloidal crystals, to phonon-mediated thermal transport in nanostructured systems, to crystal orientation and lattice parameter determination. Examples of these applications, as well as inferring aspects of microstructural evolution, illustrate the wide potential reach of TGS to solve old materials challenges and to uncover new science. We conclude by looking ahead at the tremendous potential of TGS for materials discovery and optimization when applied in situ to dynamically evolving systems.
Laser-induced acoustic desorption (LIAD) enables the desorption of nonvolatile and/or thermally labile neutral compounds, such as asphaltenes, saturated hydrocarbons in base-oil fractions and biomolecules, from a metal surface into a mass spectrometer. This is a “gentle” evaporation technique and causes minimal fragmentation to the desorbed neutral molecules, including oligonucleotides and polypeptides. LIAD can be coupled with a wide range of ionization methods to facilitate analysis of the desorbed analytes by using many different types of mass spectrometers, including Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance, linear quadrupole ion trap and quadrupole time-of-flight instruments. The development and improvement of LIAD remains an active research area with diverse goals such as better desorption efficiencies, minimized analyte fragmentation and greater versatility. This article details the theory, experimental methods, applications, and future directions of LIAD in combination with mass spectrometry.
Linear elastic moduli of solids with similar chemical compositions usually vary fairly insignificantly. However, for a broad class of apparently similar materials, their higher-order (nonlinear) moduli may differ by many times or even by orders of magnitude. Besides their large magnitude, nonlinear effects often demonstrate qualitative/functional features inconsistent with predictions of the classical theory of nonlinear elasticity based on consideration of weak lattice (atomic) nonlinearity. The latter is mostly applicable to ideal crystals and flawless amorphous solids, whereas the presence of structural heterogeneities can drastically modify the acoustic nonlinearity of materials without appreciable variation in the linear elastic properties. Despite often rather nontrivial/nonstraightforward relationships between microstructural features of the material and the resultant “nonclassical” acoustic nonlinearity, the extremely high structural sensitivity makes utilization of nonlinear acoustic effects attractive for a broad range of diagnostic applications that have been emerging in recent years in various areas—from seismic sounding and nondestructive testing to materials characterization down to the nanoscale.
We present results of time-domain Brillouin scattering (TDBS) to determine the local temperature of liquids. TDBS is based on an ultrafast pump-probe technique to determine the light scattering frequency shift caused by the propagation of coherent acoustic waves in a sample. Since the temperature influences the Brillouin scattering frequency shift, the TDBS signal probes the local temperature of the liquid. Results for the extracted Brillouin scattering frequencies recorded at different liquid temperatures and at different laser powers are shown to demonstrate the usefulness of TDBS as a temperature probe.
Honeycomb structures, owing to their microstructural periodicity, exhibit unique and complex acoustic properties. Tuning their acoustic properties typically involves either changing their topology or porosity. The former route can lead to topologies that may not be readily amenable for large-scale production, while the latter could negatively affect the honeycombs’ weight. An ideal approach for tailoring the acoustic behavior of honeycombs should neither affect their porosity nor should they require customized and expensive fabrication methods. In this work, a novel honeycomb design that alters the microstructural topological features in a relatively simple way, while preserving the porosity of the honeycombs, to tune the acoustic properties of the honeycombs is proposed. The proposed honeycomb can be fabricated using the traditional approach employed to mass produce honeycomb structures; that is by bonding identical corrugated sheets with two periodic thicknesses. The acoustic behavior of the proposed honeycomb in terms of dispersion and phase velocities is analyzed using the finite element method. Simulation results demonstrate the potential of the designed honeycomb to exhibit tailored acoustic behavior at a constant porosity or mass. For example, it is demonstrated that the phase velocities of asymmetric and symmetric waves traversing the proposed honeycomb of aluminum with 90% porosity can be tuned by 30% and 17%, respectively.
Four-wave mixing (FWM) is used to measure the vibrational modes of nanoparticles in solution. The vibrations give information about the particle size, material properties and shape. This method has been used for in-situ monitoring of the growth of nanoparticles with high accuracy, as confirmed by electron microscopy analysis. We observe a threshold in the FWM signal which we believe is from a cavity forming around the nanoparticles that reduces viscous damping. We have observed this effect in molecular dynamics simulations as well.
Metamaterials are artificial materials with emerging physical properties that go well beyond those of their individual constituents, providing interesting opportunities to tailor interactions between waves and matter. This article provides an overview of recent research activity in electromagnetics, nano-optics, acoustics and mechanics, showing how suitably tailored meta-elements and their arrangements open exciting venues to manipulate and control waves in unprecedented ways. Theoretical and experimental efforts to realize metamaterials for scattering suppression, nanostructures and metasurfaces to control wave propagation and radiation, large nonreciprocity in bulk materials without magnetism, giant nonlinear responses in properly tailored metasurfaces, and metasurfaces with balanced loss and gain are discussed. Physical insights into the exotic phenomena behind the metamaterial responses, new devices based on these concepts, and their impact on technology are also discussed.
To determine whether thiocolchicoside, a commonly used myorelaxant, may impair the acoustic reflex.
Forty-two patients scheduled to receive thiocolchicoside treatment for different reasons were enrolled in the study. Acoustic reflex thresholds at 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 Hz were determined and analysed statistically pre-treatment and on the 5th day of treatment.
Increases were observed in the mean acoustic reflex thresholds on the 5th day of treatment compared to pre-treatment, at all frequencies, except right contralateral thresholds at 500 and 2000 Hz. These increases were statistically significant for right ipsilateral thresholds at 2000 and 4000 Hz, left ipsilateral thresholds at 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 Hz, and left contralateral thresholds at 2000 and 4000 Hz (p ≤ 0.05), but not at other frequencies (p > 0.05).
Muscle relaxant drugs, especially those affecting the central nervous system, may weaken the stapedial muscle so that the ability of noise to cause acoustic trauma may become evident. For this reason, physicians should advise their patients to avoid loud noises when muscle relaxant therapy is prescribed.
This study was conducted to explore the potential use of neuromuscular electrical stimulation as an adjunctive treatment for muscle tension dysphonia.
Voice data and ratings of fatigue and soreness were obtained for two experiments. Experiment one examined the vocal effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation applied to the neck for 15 minutes. Experiment two examined the recovery effect of laryngeal neuromuscular electrical stimulation following a vocal loading task among normophonic women.
No significant differences in vocal function following 15 minutes of laryngeal neuromuscular electrical stimulation were found. Six of 11 participants receiving laryngeal neuromuscular electrical stimulation exhibited improved recovery following the vocal loading task.
A short session of laryngeal neuromuscular electrical stimulation may be beneficial in reducing muscle fatigue for some individuals. Further investigation is warranted to determine the applicability of laryngeal neuromuscular electrical stimulation in voice therapy.