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This introductory chapter reviews how researchers across a range of disciplines have critically reassessed their conceptions of language and of the relationship between language and identity, especially in multilingual or superdiverse contexts. Key elements of the ‘multilingual turn’ are elaborated, including the focus on the construction and negotiation of identity and the view of languages as part of a multimodal repertoire, thereby broadening and problematizing the definition of multilingualism. In a second section, the terminology used to describe multilingual speakers and practices is analysed, and its relation to the values and identities ascribed to them is assessed. The chapter then presents the three major themes around which the volume is structured: situated multilingualism and identity, multilingual identity practices and multilingual identity and investment. The final section explores the extent to which interdisciplinarity is represented both within the chapters and across the volume, and how far ‘integration’ and ‘common ground’, considered key aims for successful interdisciplinary work, have been possible.
This study investigated if people are acquainted with the term ‘ageism’, and to what extent acquaintance with this term corresponds with reports of discrimination, due to age. The study included an online survey, answered by 1,025 Israeli respondents. The questionnaire began by asking the respondents to define ‘What is ageism?’ (gilanut in Hebrew) and then to mark ‘If and what types of discrimination they experienced in the last year’. Subsequently, we defined and demonstrated the term ageism and asked participants to share experiences of this phenomenon; 457 (45%) participants were not familiar with the term. In the group that was unfamiliar with the term, only 46 (10%) reported that they had such experiences. In the group that was acquainted with the term, 208 (30%) reported that they had experienced ageism. In contrast, once the term, ageism, was defined and demonstrated in the survey, 638 (62%) respondents shared experiences of ageism in their lives. Of those who shared their experiences of ageism, 202 (31%) were initially unfamiliar with the term. The study's results show that there is an association between the linguistic representation of the phenomenon of ageism and reports of ageism. In the wider sense, the study shows that language and words have the power to help people understand and interpret social and human experiences.
This chapter introduces the relevance of corpus linguistics to applied linguistics and comments on some of the major changes in the field since the first edition of the book. The most essential terminology used in the rest of the book is explained, and some commonly used resources are described. The chapter ends on a personal note and provides an introduction to the interpretation of concordance lines.
This chapter explores the importance of understanding the role of anxiety as a barrier to education from a familial, lived experience standpoint. The parental understanding of a child’s complex educational requirements should be better utilised by professionals across all teams to help personalise the best individual pathway for each child. To achieve this goal there needs to be a fundamental shift in the language we use around school refusal, and the implications of such language in the legal context of mandatory education. This chapter also incorporates the various impacts school-based anxiety can have on individual families, examines the legalities of anxiety-driven non-attendance and how wider policy aims are seldom reflected in practice within the current system. Lastly this chapter explores resources for educators, healthcare professionals and parents alike, which have been of personal benefit and which will prove invaluable in advancing the discourse and practice in supporting families dealing with school-based anxiety.
Chapter 1 discusses the nature of theory, how theory can be applied, and the interaction among theories. The last issue is especially important for a discipline like translation studies, which interacts in a variety of ways with other disciplines, as Part III highlights. The chapter takes us from St Jerome in his study at the end of the fourth decade of the Christian Era, when he was commissioned by Pope Damasus to revise the existing Latin translation of the Old Testament, through early and towards contemporary theories of the translation endeavour, and towards the terminology that has been developed along the way, to pinpoint the discipline’s important concepts, considerations and approaches.
This paper looks at our term ‘curse tablet’ in the light of the Greek distinction between ἀραί (‘curses’) and κατάδεσμοι (‘binding spells’). It analyses the role of cursing in Greek culture and sketches a short history of research that led German and Anglophone scholars to coin a modern terminology that disregards the ancient distinction.
This book explores how English sentences are constructed. In this introduction, we explain our approach. We describe the current status of English as a global language, why it holds this status, and why it might not be the best choice. We characterize Standard English as a large dialect cluster, mentioning the British and American subvarieties, along with other dialects, while deploring dialect prejudice. Differences between spoken & written English, formal & informal style, and the grammarian’s purposes of describing & advising are addressed.
In the book, we introduce and define many technical terms for grammatical concepts, and here we justify some of our terminological decisions, noting that even familiar terms like noun and verb will be clearly defined, though often in ways new to the reader. We provide examples to show why.
Though many think language is about words, we focus on sentences and the discoverable constraints about how English sentences can and can’t be structured, constraints that every English speaker recognizes. The most interesting thing about grammar is that these constraints aren’t stipulated rules. They can be discovered through investigation.
Today, during the fourth industrial revolution, law firms are navigating in a somewhat changing landscape. Traditional legal practice and the ways of doing business in providing legal services is under pressure to change. The pressure comes from other law firms and increasingly self-sufficient in-house counsels who are gradually handling more and more legal matters internally. Companies and their in-house counsels are demanding more specialized services and alternative pricing structures other than the traditional practice of billing by the hour. This demand is one consequence of the fourth industrialization that includes the evolution of various forms of digitization, automation, machine learning, AI, and other technologies. As any other business, law firms are not exempt from the effects of such technologies. If anything, law firms will experience significant disruptive effects on how they do business and the types of services they provide. This is mostly due to the impact of emerging technologies on changing business models, as well as the content of the demand and needs of clients, in ways that were unthinkable twenty years ago.
Tackling a knotty but crucial issue, Hussein Elkhafaifi examines deep-seated and protracted challenges of language planning in the Arab world. The long legacy of variation and language shift in spoken Arabic has led not only to the evolution of fixed boundaries between vernacular and written Arabic, but also to vigorous attempts to monitor, control, and update the written language, especially its lexical resources. Academies dedicated to strengthening and extending the lexicon of Modern Standard Arabic have existed for a century or more in several Arab countries, but have faced problems in dealing with modernization and expansion, challenged not only by the vigorous thriving of vernacular Arabic, but also by competition from Western languages such as English and French, especially in higher education, where wholesale borrowing of terms seems to continue unabated.
Linguistic standardization has long preoccupied researchers from different sub-disciplines of linguistics, including historical, applied and sociolinguists, as well as those working on language policy. This Introduction outlines some of the key issues that run through the literature on standardization, as well as the chapters in this volume, and on which there has not always been a clear consensus. These include terminological issues, the relationship between written and spoken standards, the variability of the standard both synchronically and diachronically and the authorities on which standard languages are based. We consider how traditional models are being reviewed and challenged by opening up the scope and type of case studies to embrace multilingual situations, minoritized languages and transnational contexts. Traditional standardization narratives are also being questioned through consideration of standardization ‘from below’. Standard languages play an important role in the legal and educational systems, bringing opportunities but also challenges. We conclude by discussing a number of symptoms of the increased ‘democratization’ of standardization, such as online and digital channels, and the emergence of ‘unofficial spoken standards’.
This article aims to shed fresh light on the meaning of the term togata. It conducts an analysis of the term as it appeared in ancient sources,1 investigating in particular both how and why ancient authors across several periods focussed their attention on the togata. The paper will also distinguish between the attestation of the term togata in ancient writers, who are likely to have actually watched these theatrical performances in person and known more directly what they were talking about, and the usage of the term by later grammarians, who would have had no opportunity to watch such performances. These later authors, rather, were simply guessing what kind of theatrical representation could have been performed onstage (much as we do nowadays) and did so by adopting obvious differences in terminology.
Chapter 4 addresses the justifications for which specific performance is a remedy of international law before the Court. It focuses on the controversial issues regarding this remedy, which range from determining the power of the Court to order it, to analysing the effects of its relationship with other remedies, such as restitution in kind or declaratory judgments. The differences of opinion expressed by commentators regarding its availability before the International Court of Justice originate from a series of misunderstandings that gravitate around the effects of qualifying this remedy as a form of injunctive relief. A consequence of this conceptual confusion influences the relationship and interaction between specific performance, declaratory judgments, cessation and restitution in kind and the main features of this remedy. Further, the interpretation and application of specific performance is also influenced by differences in terminology between scholars and practitioners originating from different legal systems.
Chapter 1 provides an introduction to the book and provides the reader with background information regarding the main themes in the volume. It opens with an overview of Persian historiography across the Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal empires, providing a brief overview of each empire. The chapter then examines recent studies on connected histories and the Persianate world. This is followed by a summary of the “state of the field,” noting recent scholarship on Persian historiography under the Ottomans, Safavids, and Mughals, and studies on Persian historiography during the early and middle periods of Islamicate history. Next, the chapter presents an overview of each of the subsequent chapters in the book. It concludes with notes on terminology and transliteration.
This chapter is a succinct introduction to basic probabilistic methods for pattern recognition and machine learning. One focus is to clearly present the exact meanings of different terms, including the taxonomy of different probabilistic methods. We present a basic introduction to maximum likelihood and maximum a posteriori estimation, and a very brief example to showcase the concept of Bayesian estimation. For the nonparametric world, we start from the drawbacks of parametric methods, gradually analyzing the properties preferred for a nonparametric one, and finally reach the kernel density estimation, a typical nonparametric method.
Chapter 3 addresses the question of extending parental responsibility to social parents. Parental responsibility is an important mechanism through which to confer responsibilities and rights upon social parents. It is particularly useful in the context of same-sex parenting given that some gay and lesbian couples become parents in situations where the child was born to one of them as part of a previous heterosexual relationship. The extension of parental responsibility provides a mechanism whereby the partner or spouse of the parent can acquire responsibilities and rights towards the child in a manner that does not affect the status of the legal parents.
The Introduction sets out the central themes that arise in the chapters that follow. These themes form a common thread throughout the later chapters, providing a consistent structure for the arguments that are presented. The Introduction also provides an explanation of the terminology that is used throughout the work to describe various family forms. Parenting is multifaceted, and so this work does not attempt to address all aspects. Instead, the focus is on common pathways to parentage that are available to same-sex couples, and the analysis focuses on applying the best interests principle in each context. The final section of Introduction provides an overview of the chapter structure, which demonstrates the parameters of the research.
The chapter focuses on the distinction between treaties and other kinds of international instruments. It addresses issues such as why it is necessary to distinguish between treaties and other kinds of international instruments, and what can go wrong when a State or an IO fails to do so. It identifies other kinds of international instruments that are not treaties, their binding status, different scenarios in which it may be difficult to differentiate such instruments and how to overcome such situations. The chapter also offers some suggestions on handling treaties and other kinds of international instruments.
Chapter 1 discusses the terminology of the name Third Intermediate Period and demonstrates the views within previous archaeological thought and theory, showig which ideas have shaped the discussions and approaches to Third Intermediate Period archaeology, history, and culture. Chapter 1 also provides a discussion of the complex and disputed chronology for the Third Intermediate Period, outlining those areas that are agreed upon and those areas which are still debated.
Virtual patient software allows health professionals to practise their skills by interacting with tools simulating clinical scenarios. A natural language dialogue system can provide natural interaction for medical history-taking. However, the large number of concepts and terms in the medical domain makes the creation of such a system a demanding task. We designed a dialogue system that stands out from current research by its ability to handle a wide variety of medical specialties and clinical cases. To address the task, we designed a patient record model, a knowledge model for the task and a termino-ontological model that hosts structured thesauri with linguistic, terminological and ontological knowledge. We used a frame- and rule-based approach and terminology-rich resources to handle the medical dialogue. This work focuses on the termino-ontological model, the challenges involved and how the system manages resources for the French language. We adopted a comprehensive approach to collect terms and ontological knowledge, and dictionaries of affixes, synonyms and derivational variants. Resources include domain lists containing over 161,000 terms, and dictionaries with over 959,000 word/concept entries. We assessed our approach by having 71 participants (39 medical doctors and 32 non-medical evaluators) interact with the system and use 35 cases from 18 specialities. We conducted a quantitative evaluation of all components by analysing interaction logs (11,834 turns). Natural language understanding achieved an F-measure of 95.8%. Dialogue management provided on average 74.3 (±9.5)% of correct answers. We performed a qualitative evaluation by collecting 171 five-point Likert scale questionnaires. All evaluated aspects obtained mean scores above the Likert mid-scale point. We analysed the vocabulary coverage with regard to unseen cases: the system covered 97.8% of their terms. Evaluations showed that the system achieved high vocabulary coverage on unseen cases and was assessed as relevant for the task.