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This chapter analyses the connections between quantity expressions, which, in English, include expressions such as three, several, a few, much, and many, and the mass/count distinction. Based on cross-linguistic evidence from Brazilian Portuguese, English, Mandarin, and Yudja, amongst others, Doetjes argues that quantity expressions can be exhaustively subdivided into two classes: count quantity expressions, which presuppose the availability of units that can be counted, and non-count quantity expressions, which do not presuppose the availability of units that can be counted. Anti-count quantity expressions, which presuppose the absence of units that can be counted, are subsumed under the class of non-count quantity expressions. On the basis of this distinction, Doetjes argues that while we may expect to find languages in which all nouns have a count denotation (Yudja being a good candidate), it is not predicted to be possible for there to be languages in which all nouns have a mass denotation.
In this chapter, the framework proposed in Chapter 2 is applied to the history of English. The discourse markers studied are after all, anyway, I mean, if you like, if you will, instead, like, no doubt, right, so to say/so to speak, well, and what else. The findings presented are in support of the hypothesis proposed in Section 1.5, according to which discourse markers are the joint product of two separate mechanisms, with each of the mechanisms accounting for specific properties of discourse markers.
Discourse markers constitute an important part of linguistic communication, and research on this phenomenon has been a thriving field of study over the past three decades. However, a problem that has plagued this research is that these markers exhibit a number of structural characteristics that are hard to interpret based on existing methodologies, such as grammaticalization. This study argues that it is possible to explain such characteristics in a meaningful way. It presents a cross-linguistic survey of the development of discourse markers, their important role in communication, and their relation to the wider context of sociocultural behaviour, with the goal of explaining their similarities and differences across a typologically wide range of languages. By giving a clear definition of discourse markers, it aims to provide a guide for future research, making it essential reading for students and researchers in linguistics, and anyone interested in exploring this fascinating linguistic phenomenon.
In response to negative yes–no questions (e.g., Doesn’t she like cats?), typical English answers (Yes, she does/No, she doesn’t) peculiarly vary from those in Mandarin (No, she does/Yes, she doesn’t). What are the processing consequences of these markedly different conventionalized linguistic responses to achieve the same communicative goals? And if English and Mandarin speakers process negative questions differently, to what extent does processing change in Mandarin–English sequential bilinguals? Two experiments addressed these questions. Mandarin–English bilinguals, English and Mandarin monolinguals (N = 40/group) were tested in a production experiment (Expt. 1). The task was to formulate answers to positive/negative yes–no questions. The same participants were also tested in a comprehension experiment (Expt. 2), in which they had to answer positive/negative questions with time-measured yes/no button presses. In both Expt. 1 and Expt. 2, English and Mandarin speakers showed language-specific yes/no answers to negative questions. Also, in both experiments, English speakers showed a reaction-time advantage over Mandarin speakers in negation conditions. Bilingual’s performance was in-between that of the L1 and L2 baseline. These findings are suggestive of language-specific processing of negative questions. They also signal that the ways in which bilinguals process negative questions are susceptible to restructuring driven by the second language.
Within the holdings of the Thomas Fisher Rare Book Library at the University of Toronto there is a curious, rarely examined handwritten book entitled Opera Evangelica, containing translations of several apocryphal works in English. It opens with a lengthy Preface that provides an antiquarian account of Christian apocrypha along with a justification for translating the texts. Unfortunately, the book's title page gives little indication of its authorship or date of composition, apart from an oblique reference to the translator as ‘I. B.’ But citations in the Preface to contemporary scholarship place the volume around the turn of the eighteenth century, predating the first published English-language compendium of Christian apocrypha in print by Jeremiah Jones (1726). A second copy of the book has been found in the Cambridge University Library, though its selection of texts and material form diverges from the Toronto volume in some notable respects. This article presents Opera Evangelica to a modern audience for the first time. It examines various aspects of the work: the material features and history of the two manuscripts; the editions of apocryphal texts that lie behind its translations; the views expressed on Christian apocrypha by its mysterious author; and its place within manuscript publication and English scholarship around the turn of the eighteenth century. Scholars of Christian apocrypha delight in finding ‘lost gospels’ but in Opera Evangelica we have something truly unique: a long-lost collection of Christian apocrypha.
This chapter presents arguments about why, for the items addressed in the book, Spanish employs a considerably greater number of lexemes. It also explores the significance of the number of countries in which a language is spoken, as well as the regions in which these nations are located. Furthermore, it presents a novel theory regarding the evident influence of Greco-Roman rhetorical tradition on the types of lexical variety in Spanish demonstrated in the book. Finally, also bringing the previous four chapters together is a table containing seventy of the more than 500 words analyzed in said chapters, a representative sampling of the myriad etymological routes by which they entered the Spanish lexicon.
In this chapter, we explore whether perceptual adjustments for gender are equally strong for Japanese- and English-speaking listeners’ categorization of the sibilant fricatives /s/ and /ʃ/ in CV sequences. These stimuli were created by combining a set of eight fricatives with a set of natural vocalic bases produced by a variety of men. We hypothesized that Japanese listeners’ categorization would be more strongly influenced by gender typicality, given the overall heightened attention to gendered speech features in Japanese speakers and the greater role that vocalic features play in fricative categorization in Japanese compared to English. Some evidence is found that Japanese listeners’ categorization of fricatives is influenced more heavily on the gender typicality of men’s voices in the vocalic portion of the stimulus than is English listeners, but the effects are neither consistent nor in the direction predicted by previous research. Results point to the need for more research on how talker attributes affect the way that L2 listeners perceive L1 speech.
Accents in second language speech have multiple perceptual consequences, including breakdown in communication and undesirable judgments about accented speakers. Whereas perceived accents are likely influenced by various acoustic variables, it is not clear which acoustic variables influence the perceived accents the most and whether such important predictors of accents change as learners’ proficiency develops. Here we report a study that has examined acoustic sources of foreign accent in second language Japanese produced by American learners at different instructional levels, including beginning and intermediate late learners and early bilinguals. We collected speech samples from these learners as well as a control group of native speakers and measured 27 segmental and prosodic variables. These acoustic variables were related to accent rating scores obtained from native listeners. Confirmatory analyses showed that 24 out of 27 variables tested were reliably associated with listeners’ accentedness judgements. Exploratory analyses showed that prosodic features were most predictive of beginning to intermediate late learners’ accents, whereas vowel features were most predictive of early bilinguals’ accents. These results shed light on issues related to the acoustic sources of foreign accent and the development of second language speech.
This study investigates the perceptual accuracy of eight English obstruents in the onset and coda position by Mandarin and Korean-speaking L2 learners and by a control group of native English speakers. According to the current theoretical models on second language speech learning, L1 Mandarin and Korean speakers are expected to differ in their perception of English obstruents due to the different correspondence between their respective L1 obstruents and those in English. On the other hand, theories based on intrinsic differences in the difficulty of different linguistic skills imply that some L2 sounds would be more difficult than others regardless of the L1 background. The results showed that all three groups were significantly more accurate in perceiving obstruents in the onset than in the coda position, voiceless than voiced targets, stops than fricatives, and labials than coronals. /θ/ and /ð/ were particularly poorly identified. The two learner groups were equally accurate in the onset position, but the Mandarin group outperformed the Korean group in the coda position. Regarding the specific obstruents, some patterns were predicted by mapping to the L1. Nonetheless, the general similarity between the two groups suggests a robust and pervasive language-independent tendency in speech perception.
This chapter reviews research examining the acquisition of English /r/ and /l/ by native Japanese (NJ) speakers from the perspective of the revised Speech Learning Model. The research shows that the English liquids can be learned after the end of the so-called critical period for speech learning, but that the two liquids are learned in different ways. This derives from the fact that the English /r/ is perceived to be more dissimilar phonetically from the Japanese liquid, /R/, than English /l/ is. NJ speakers who have received a substantial amount of English input produced and perceived English /r/ with high levels of accuracy due to the formation of a new phonetic category for English /r/. The lower level of accuracy observed for English /l/ is attributed to the formation of a composite Japanese /R/-English /l/ category based on the Japanese /R/ and English /l/ productions to which Japanese-English bilinguals have been exposed. The SLM-r predicts that bilinguals will continue to produce and perceive English /l/ less accurately than English /r/, regardless of how much English input they have received and that learning the English liquids will induce modifications in how NJ speakers will produce and perceive their native /R/.
This study was designed to investigate the contribution of nonnative (L2) patterns of pausing to the perceived effort of listening to speech. English-language speech samples from 10 native speakers of Korean and Mandarin Chinese 5 of each) previously assessed as having intermediate proficiency in English were manipulated by removing all nonjuncture silent pauses as well as all filled pauses. The original and manipulated speech samples, as well as samples of comparable but unmanipulated English speech produced by 10 native speakers of Korean and Mandarin Chinese with higher English proficiency, were evaluated in a between-groups design by 60 native speakers of American English. Although the removal of nonjuncture pauses did not significantly alter listeners’ ratings of the intermediate speech, results did suggest a subtle interaction between ratings of effort and measures of listeners’ working memory capacity, suggesting that the detrimental effects of pausing in nonnative accented speech may be related to increased demand on limited-capacity cognitive processing resources, such as working memory.
Previous studies have shown that directing learners’ attention during perceptual training facilitates detection and learning of unfamiliar consonant categories. The current study asks whether this attentional directing can also facilitate other types of phonetic learning. Monolingual Mandarin speakers were divided into two groups directed to learn either (1) the consonants or (2) the tones in an identification training task with the same set of Southern Min monosyllabic words containing the consonants /pʰ, p, b, kh, k, ɡ, tɕʰ, tɕ, ɕ/ and the tones (55, 33, 22, 24, 41). All subjects were also tested with an AXB discrimination task (with a distinct set of Southern Min words) before and after the training. Unsurprisingly, both groups improved accuracy in the sound type to which they attended. However, the consonant-attending group did not improve in discriminating tones after training, and neither did the tone-attending group in discriminating consonants -- despite both groups having equal exposure to the same training stimuli. When combined with previous results for consonant and vowel training, these results suggest that explicitly directing learners’ attention has a broadly facilitative effect on phonetic learning including of tonal contrasts.
Vowels are said to be less distinctive in prenasal context. The “pin/pen” merger in the Southern United States is a good example. This study attempts to investigate the effects of the postvocalic nasal on the identification and discrimination of American English vowels by native speakers of American English (NE) and Japanese (NJ). These two groups of participants identified six American English (AE) monophthongs /i, ɪ, ɛ, æ, ɑ, ʌ/ and discriminated six vowel pairs /i/-/ɪ/, /ɛ/-/ɪ/, /æ/-/ɛ/, /æ/-/ɑ/, /æ/-/ʌ /, and /ɑ/-/ʌ / in prenasal context. NJ also identified these American English vowels in terms of Japanese vowel categories. The results revealed that, overall, NE outperformed NJ in both identification and discrimination. In addition, how AE vowels were perceptually mapped to Japanese vowels predicted NJ’s discrimination. However, both groups’ performances were found to be poorer in the prenasal context when compared to their previous performances in the preplosive context, and NJ were more adversely (but differently) affected by nasalization than NE.
Research showed that the interlanguage speech intelligibility benefit (ISIB) effect progressively disappeared in Chinese speakers of English as their English proficiency increased and their exposure to Chinese-accented English decreased. As a result, ISIB effects were obvious in less proficient speakers. We explore the hypothesis that ISIB is still present in proficient L2 English speakers when tasks go beyond sound transcription and relate intelligibility to more complex sound-meaning mappings. Results showed that, in general, native English speakers outperformed Chinese speakers of English showing no evidence of an overall ISIB effect despite that Chinese speakers of English rated Chinese-accented sentences as more comprehensible. Only in the compound versus noun contrasts (e.g., ‘bluebird’ vs. ‘blue bird’), Chinese speakers of English outperformed native English speakers in the Chinese-accented stimuli, showing a mild ISIB-L effect. This modest evidence in support of ISIB encourages further exploration on aspects of sound perception that could affect ISIB in proficient L2 speakers.
This study examines the effects of auditory priming on second language (L2) speech production. Mandarin learners of English were presented with an English vowel as an auditory prime followed by an English target word containing either a tenseness congruent (e.g., prime: /i/ – target: “peach”) or incongruent (e.g., prime: /i/ – target: “pitch”) vowel. Pronunciation of the target vowel was measured in terms of duration and formant frequency as well as intelligibility by native English listeners. Results show a more English-like formant frequency distribution and an increase in intelligibility of the /i/ and /ɪ/ productions in the congruent relative to incongruent condition, suggesting that auditory speech information can positively affect the pronunciation of difficult L2 speech contrasts.
In this study, segmental and prosodic properties of word-length stimuli were assessed together. Six talkers from 5 L1 backgrounds (American English, Hindi, Korean, Mandarin, and Spanish) were recorded reading English stop-initial trochaic words. The productions were played for 20 monolingual American English-speaking listeners rated the accentedness of each talker. For each token, the deviation from native English productions was determined for segmental (VOT, vowel quality) and three prosodic properties (ratios of duration, intensity, f0 across the two syllables). For each nonnative language background, a linear mixed-effects regression model was created to predict accentedness ratings from the phonetic deviations, and the significance of each fixed effect was examined. In each model, the significant predictors included both segmental and prosodic properties. For Hindi and Spanish talkers, the single best predictor was segmental; however, for Korean and Mandarin talkers, the single best predictor was prosodic. Thus, even for short stimuli, both segmental and prosodic information must be considered in accounting for accentedness judgments. We conclude that listeners are sensitive to the different ways that foreign accent may be manifested across different nonnative backgrounds.
The present study investigated the production of lexical stress by native speakers of English (NE), Arabic learners of English (ALE), and native speakers of Arabic (NA). In the first experiment, minimal pairs (e.g., ‘con.flict, con.’flict) were recorded by 8 native speakers of English and 16 (8 advanced and 8 beginning) learners. For comparison, a second experiment examined acoustic cues used to indicate stress in 8 native Arabic speakers. In both experiments, four acoustic cues were examined: duration, fundamental frequency, amplitude, and second formant frequency. Results showed that NE consistently used all four cues to signal stress, with longer duration, higher fundamental frequency, higher amplitude, and less reduced vowel quality for stressed syllables. Advanced ALE, but not the beginning ALE, made distinctions in duration and amplitude similar to the duration and amplitude cues used by NE. For fundamental frequency, both advanced and beginning ALE produced even higher fundamental frequency values for stressed syllables than NE and both learner groups produced full (unreduced) vowels in stressed and unstressed syllables. Implications for acoustic cues to lexical stress in English as a second language are discussed.
The conclusion to The Victorian Cult of Shakespeare addresses Victorian reading practices in light of various twenty-first-century hermeneutics of sympathy: Eve Sedgwick’s “reparative reading,” Michael Warner’s “uncritical reading,” Rita Felski’s “post-critical reading,” Emma Mason’s “pastoral reading,” Lori Branch’s “post-secular studies,” and so forth. It urges that professional literary studies might do well to view devotional Victorian responses to Shakespeare with greater sympathy than we have to this point, that such sympathy may be, after all, closer to the heart of our collective mission.
This paper investigates whether differences in grammar affect the production of discourse relations. We report the results of two story continuation experiments on speakers of two typologically unrelated languages, English and Korean, and in two different discourse genres, monologues (Experiment 1) and conversations (Experiment 2), focusing on the contrast between the explanation discourse relation and the result discourse relation. Since the grammar of clause linkage in Korean, but not English, disfavors a backward causal order (explanation relation), we predicted that Korean speakers are less likely to produce EXPLANATION continuations in MONOLOGUES than English speakers. We also predicted that this difference disappears in conversation, as questions that can be uttered in conversations are not subject to the same constraints on clause linkage in Korean. The results confirmed our predictions. The effect of language on the production of discourse relations in monologue suggests that LINGUISTIC STRUCTURES can affect speakers’ discourse expectation and production, while the absence of language effect in conversation suggests that this language effect is not due to differences in the way speakers causally relate events or to conceptual or cultural differences in preferences for iconic discourse between English and Korean speakers.
This chapter deals with the process of standardisation as reflected in four major Caribbean dictionaries: the Dictionary of Jamaican English (1967, 1980), the Dictionary of Bahamian English (1980), the Dictionary of Caribbean English Usage (1996, 2003), the Dictionary of Creole/English of Trinidad and Tobago (2009), and a supplement to the DCEU, the New Register of Caribbean English Usage. In the first part of the chapter, the process of standardisation is discussed and Caribbean English (CE) is defined. The material in each dictionary is analysed with relevant examples reflecting the nature of CE. The fact that the term 'Caribbean English' is confined to the Commonwealth Caribbean in these works is noted, and the reasons that a Dutch island like Saba is mainly English-speaking are provided. Mention is made of the new Dictionary of Saban English, A Lee Chip (2016), and of its main objective as a reference work. The author concludes that all the dictionaries discussed are standardising agents, but that to carry out their role more effectively, they need to be seriously studied and fully incorporated into the Caribbean education system in general.