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This article offers a window onto the experience of three researchers who influenced the direction of organic agriculture research from the 1980s through today. Kathleen Delate, Catherine Greene and Deborah Stinner have all contributed important work in the field, from organizing and executing research projects to analyzing the collecting hard data that provided insight into the numerous environmental and economic benefits of organic agriculture. Their stories share many similar biographical markers, from the importance of food and nature in childhood memories to trailblazing projects in the early 2000s.
Smutgrass is an invasive weed species that can quickly outcompete bahiagrass because of its aggressive growth, prolific seed production, and rhizomatous growth. Total renovation of bahiagrass pastures or hayfields is generally not a feasible or economically viable option for most producers. Therefore, controlling the continual spread of smutgrass will require an integrated weed management plan (IWPM) that incorporates multiple strategies. The objective of this study was to test the interactions of herbicides and fertilizers on smutgrass control in bahiagrass and determine the most efficacious and economical IWPM plan for low-input bahiagrass systems. This research was conducted on a mixture of ‘Tifton 9’ and ‘Pensacola’ bahiagrass at the Alapaha Beef Station in Alapaha, GA. The study design was randomized complete block with a three by four factorial treatment arrangement with six replications. Fertility treatments included 56 kg N ha-1 (ammonium nitrate, 34% N) + 56 kg K2O ha-1, 56 kg N ha-1, and an unfertilized control. Smutgrass was reduced to <15% ground coverage when a post-emergent herbicide was applied. The addition of a pre-emergent herbicide and/or fertilizer further reduced the coverage of smutgrass (P < 0.01). As smutgrass declined, the bahiagrass ground coverage increased while other and dead material did not differ by treatment. Generally, forage accumulation and crude protein were only affected following the second N application (P < 0.01). Treatments that included pre-emergent (indaziflam) and post-emergent (hexazinone) herbicides in addition to N and K2O resulted in an improved bahiagrass stand as timely weed suppression removed competition, while fertilizer provided essential nutrients for optimum growth to fill in the gaps. Combining herbicide and fertilizer is a more economical option for producers when compared to a complete bahiagrass renovation.
Alkylation of 1-butene with isobutane is employed industrially to produce C8 alkylates (such as trimethylpentane) as high-octane motor fuel. Such alkylates supply roughly up to 15% of the U.S. gasoline pool. However, the process uses large quantities of sulfuric acid (as catalyst) generating acid waste whose handling poses health and environmental hazards. The main pollutants are sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions (which causes acid rain) and acid leakage in the alkylation unit. This chapter presents an alternate process that uses a solid catalyst (Nafion® supported on silica) in dense CO2 media to produce C8 alkylates (solid acid/CO2 process). Although the environmental concerns with SO2 emissions and acid leakage are eliminated, the activity of the solid acid catalyst is lower than sulfuric acid resulting in an approximately 30% higher capital investment than the conventional process. For C8 alkylate productivity, capital investments and operating costs to be nearly identical, the required olefin throughput in the solid acid/CO2 process must be four-fold higher. Such analyses establish performance targets for the solid acid/CO2 process to be commercially viable.
Double-cropping winter rye cover crops (CC) with soybean in the North Central US could help with the global effort to sustainably intensify agriculture. Studies addressing the management of these systems are limited. Therefore, a field study was conducted from 2017 to 2019 in Central Iowa, US to evaluate winter rye CC biomass production, aboveground N accumulation, estimated economics, estimated within-field energy balance and estimated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions under three N application rates (0, 60, 120 kg N ha−1) and three planting methods (pre- and post-harvest broadcast and post-harvest drilling). Averaged over N rates, all planting methods resulted in >5.0 Mg ha−1 year−1 rye aboveground biomass dry matter. Averaged over the 2-year study and compared with unfertilized treatments, applying 60 kg N ha−1 produced 1.1 Mg ha−1 more aboveground biomass (6.1 vs 5.0 Mg ha−1), accumulated 30 kg ha−1 more N in aboveground biomass (88 vs 58 kg N ha−1), and led to 20 GJ ha−1 more net energy. Biomass production was not significantly higher with 120 kg N ha−1 compared with the 60 kg N ha−1 rate. Even when accounting for an estimated 0.75 Mg ha−1 of above ground rye biomass left in the field after harvesting, more N was removed than applied at the 60 kg N ha−1 rate. The minimum rye prices over the 2-year study needed for double-cropping winter rye CC to be profitable (breakeven prices) averaged $117 and $104 Mg−1 for the 0 and 60 kg N ha−1 rates, which factors in estimated soybean yield reductions in 2019 compared with local averages but not off-site transportation. GHG emissions were estimated to increase approximately threefold between the unfertilized and 60 kg N ha−1 rates without considering bioenergy offsets. While environmental tradeoffs need further study, results suggest harvesting fertilized rye CC biomass before planting soybean is a promising practice for the North Central US to maximize total crop and net energy production.
This chapter compares two generations of economic literary critics who, since the mid-1990s, have examined how literary texts intersect with racial capitalism. Like the authors they study, these scholars are less concerned with documenting the material consequences of racism than they are with interrogating the systemic logic of the sociocultural frameworks through which racialization is reproduced and racist policy is rationalized. The chapter specifically outlines the intersecting methodologies of these scholars and documents their efforts to show how literary texts often engage the language and logic of economic theory in ways that can destabilize racism’s ideological underpinnings. Beginning with the New Economic Criticism of the 1990s and ending with the emerging paradigm of the Economic Humanities, this chapter demonstrates that while the latter may better attend to the disciplinary specifics of economics than the former, it, like its predecessor, has yet to contend fully with the whiteness of the economic imaginary it takes as its subject.
Origin stories of the economics discipline give considerable credit not only to philosophy, but also to poetry. And many canonical economists have reputations for polymathy. But interdisciplinary economic inquiry, like that which has become increasingly common since 2008, is often treated as both novel and ill-fated, in part because contemporary orthodox economists lack the commitment to pluralism necessary for fruitful interdisciplinary collaboration. This chapter looks to a 2020 Climate Fiction (“CliFi”) novel, Kim Stanley Robinson’s Ministry For The Future, for models of interdisciplinary collaboration between economists, critical theorists, and climate scientists. In particular, Robinson centers an unlikely pair of Utopian thinkers – British economist John Maynard Keynes and American theorist Fredric Jameson – who at crucial junctures in their careers took seriously what is also the project of Robinson’s titular Ministry: treating future generations as a political constituency deserving of political representation in the present.
Since the board game Settlers of Catan was first released in 1995 it has sold more than 25 million copies. It works like this. Play starts after tiles of different land types – mountains producing iron ore, pastures sustaining sheep, and so on – are laid out – and numbers between 2 and 12 are randomly assigned to each tile. Every player picks a spot on the board to establish his or her first village. When the dice is rolled, a player receives a resource that matches the number on the dice if his or her village is located next to that resource. So, if the pasture next to my village has 9 on it, and the two dice thrown add up to 9, I receive one sheep. Those resources I then use to buy roads and villages and cities – and so expand my empire.
This paper speculates as to the material consequences of the ecological crisis for the current objectives of the education system in the State of Victoria. Drawing upon new materialist thought, it presents a post-qualitative inquiry into the lead author’s experiences as an educator during a 2014 fire event in the Latrobe Valley region of Gippsland, Victoria, Australia, known as the Hazelwood Coal Mine Fire. By engaging in thinking without method it unfolds an argument that a political preference for certain theories has resulted in economic growth becoming a key objective of Victoria’s education system. It explores alternative theoretical perspectives, including the theory that there are limits to growth. This theoretical shift implies that any meaningful response to the ecological crisis will require a transition to a post-growth society. The paper considers the implication of this alternative theory for the current objectives of the education system in the State of Victoria. In so doing, it considers what it might mean if we accepted our response-ability to educate for a post-growth society rather than for a society surrounded by smoke and ash.
Undergraduate research and inquiry-based learning in economics are on the rise. In this chapter we discuss the benefits and costs of undergraduate research and provide examples of good practice. Our analysis shows that economics students are actively engaged in the research process through various curriculum-based and extracurricular learning opportunities. We also observe that research content is more emphasized than research process in economics students' inquiry-based learning. Non-curricular research activities are best described by research-tutored activities according to the Healey model. Using the literature of distinguished economists and similar writing-based activities remains the most popular inquiry-based learning model in economics.
A field experiment was conducted in 2019 and 2020 that included six site-years and four locations in Arkansas to determine the optimal sequence and timing of dicamba and glufosinate applications when applied alone, sequentially, or in combination to control Palmer amaranth by size: labeled (<10 cm height) and non-labeled (13 to 25 cm height). Single applications of dicamba, glufosinate, and dicamba plus glufosinate (not labeled) resulted in less than 80% Palmer amaranth control, regardless of weed size. The mixture of dicamba plus glufosinate was antagonistic for Palmer amaranth control and percent mortality. Sequential applications, averaged over all time intervals and herbicides, improved the percentage of Palmer amaranth control 11 to 17 percentage points over a single application, regardless of weed size at application 28 d after final application (DAFA). Palmer amaranth control with glufosinate followed by (fb) glufosinate and dicamba fb dicamba, pending weed size, were optimized at intervals of 7 d, and 14 to 21 d, respectively. Because single site of action (SOA) postemergence herbicide systems increase the likelihood of the development of resistant biotypes and are not a best management practice (BMP) in that regard; sequential applications involving both dicamba and glufosinate were more effective. Furthermore, the sequence of application mattered with a preference for applying dicamba first. Dicamba fb glufosinate at a 14-d interval was profit-maximizing and the only herbicide treatment that resulted in 100% weed control when size was <10 cm. For larger weed sizes, economic analysis revealed that dicamba fb dicamba performed better than dicamba fb glufosinate when no penalty was assigned for using a single SOA. This resulted in greater yield loss risk and soil weed seed bank in comparison to timelier weed control with the smaller weed size. Hence, timely weed control and two SOAs to control Palmer amaranth are recommended as BMPs that reduce producer risk.
This chapter focuses on the ideology of Dominicanization in the postgenocide period. It explains the state’s project to erase the ethnic Haitian cultural, economic, and demographic presence after 1937–1938. This project to root out the Haitian presence involved surveillance and forced relocation. The regime espoused an ideal of Hispanidad that denied the Haitian and African presence in the country. Dominicanization involved the regime’s vision for both the economic and cultural development of the border provinces. The chapter explores official correspondence to consider the politicization of language, foodways, construction methods, religious practices, as well as such symbolic material embodiments of modernity as radios, billiard tables, and zinc roofing. The chapter also highlights civilian resistance and the maintenance of old border lifeways. New levels of draconian control over culture and economic activity could not fully eradicate illegal crossing, smuggling, agricultural relations, and kinship. Though Trujillo’s government demonstrated that it had the power to kill large groups of people, it did not have the power to fully control large areas of rugged territory. The aspects of border society that Trujillo’s officials considered obstacles to their Dominicanization campaign help to both reconstruct aspects of the pre-1937 border society and further explain the 1937 Genocide.
This chapter traces the medieval discourse on Jews as usurers from the 12th to the 16th centuries. It argues that European Jews were collectively labeled, then criminalized, as usurers because of their religious difference and not because of their highly exaggerated role as moneylenders.
This chapter serves as an introduction for what follows by placing the volume’s approach into the wider context of the past and current study of central Italic architecture. It points out some of the issues that underlie and join the subsequent analyses, including why so many major building projects were undertaken in Etruria, Rome, and Latium in this period, who and what was moving to create them, and how the results blur the boundaries of what has traditionally been considered ‘Roman’. Fundamentally, it argues not only for the value of central Italic architecture as a source for regional social and economic histories, but also for its potential contribution to the study of ancient architecture as a whole.
Markets are taken as the norm in economics and in much of political and media discourse. But if markets are superior why does the public sector remain so large? Avner Offer provides a distinctive new account of the effective temporal limits on private, public, and social activity. Understanding the Private–Public Divide accounts for the division of labour between business and the public sector, how it changes over time, where the boundaries ought to run, and the harm that follows if they are violated. He explains how finance forces markets to focus on short-term objectives and why business requires special privileges in return for long-term commitment. He shows how a private sector policy bias leads to inequality, insecurity, and corruption. Integrity used to be the norm and it can be achieved again. Only governments can manage uncertainty in the long-term interests of society, as shown by the challenge of climate change.
Many thinkers have alleged that free markets are inimical to a sense of community. According to critics such as Robert Putnam, commercial societies tend to dissociate people from one another and to undermine the basis of civil society. Alexis de Tocqueville’s Democracy in America seems to present a challenge to this view insofar as he regards the Americans as both exceptionally commercial and uniquely associational. If markets and associations are in tension with one another, how can they coexist in the United States? As Rachael K. Behr and Virgil Henry Storr argue in this chapter, a closer attention to Democracy in America suggests several ways in which commercial society and the spirit of association are mutually supportive. Markets foster a complex division of labor that requires mutual cooperation. Markets encourage a sense of enlightened self-interest that teaches citizens how they might engage with one another in mutually beneficial ways. Further, markets facilitate innovations in communication that make it easier for citizens to coordinate and freely associate for political change. Rather than giving rise to Tocqueville’s dreaded pathology of “individualism,” as critics have alleged, markets are instead conducive to active civic engagement and the free association of democratic citizens.
In a world of growing environmental risks and ecological scarcities, ensuring a safe Anthropocene for humankind is essential. Managing an increasingly "fragile" planet requires new thinking on markets, institutions and governance built on five principles: ending the underpricing of nature, fostering collective action, accepting absolute limits, attaining sustainability, and promoting inclusivity. Rethinking economics and policies in this way can help to overcome the global challenges posed by climate change, biodiversity loss, freshwater scarcity, and deteriorating marine and coastal habitats. It requires decoupling wealth creation from environmental degradation through business, policy and financial actions aimed at better stewardship of the biosphere. In this book, renowned environmental economist Edward Barbier offers a blueprint for a greener and more inclusive economy, and outlines the steps we must take now to build a post-COVID world that limits environmental threats while sustaining per capita welfare.
Negligence is a more efficient liability rule than strict liability. Under a negligence liability rule, all parties (owners and users) will be incentivised to adopt reasonable, cost-justified, and non-excessive care to avoid infringements. This will minimise the overall social cost imposed by accidents. At the same time, introducing a negligence liability rule will distribute creative risk more equitably leading to a more just and attractive culture.
There are many structural problems facing the UK at present, from a weakened National Health Service to deeply ingrained inequality. These challenges extend through society to clinical practice and have an impact on current mental health research, which was in a perilous state even before the coronavirus pandemic hit. In this editorial, a group of psychiatric researchers who currently sit on the Academic Faculty of the Royal College of Psychiatrists and represent the breadth of research in mental health from across the UK discuss the challenges faced in academic mental health research. They reflect on the need for additional investment in the specialty and ask whether this is a turning point for the future of mental health research.
This chapter outlines the sophisticated array of strategies and techniques that today’s device makers have developed to discourage and obstruct repair. Firms rely on product design, economic manipulation, and consumer persuasion to steer us away from repair and keep us buying new devices year after year. They use hardware and software design to erect practical barriers to repair. They charge unnecessarily high prices for repair or refuse to fix products at all. At the same time, they deny independent repair providers access to parts and tools necessary to meet consumer demand. And through subtle and explicit messaging, they discourage consumers from even attempting repairs.