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Accumulating evidence suggests that people’s sense of the spatial location of events in time is flexible across cultures, contexts, and individuals. Yet few studies have established whether time spatialization is correlated with traumatic experiences. Based on findings that people tend to demonstrate a past time orientation when suffering from disasters, the present research investigated how earthquake experience is associated with temporal focus and time spatialization. Study 1 compared responses of residents in an earthquake-hit area with those of residents in a non-disaster area about two weeks after the disaster had occurred. The results showed that participants in the disaster area were more past-focused and produced more past-in-front responses than participants in the non-disaster area. In Study 2, a follow-up survey was conducted in the same areas ten months after the earthquake to examine whether the impact of disasters on spatial conceptions of time would decay as time elapsed. The findings indicated that participants in these two areas showed no differences in temporal focus and implicit space–time mappings. Taken together, these findings provide support for the Temporal Focus Hypothesis. They also have implications for understanding fluctuation in temporal focus and the high malleability of temporal mappings across individuals.
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common mental disorder following traumatic events. The present study was conducted to understand the prevalence of PTSD after the earthquake in Iran and Pakistan. The review includes all articles published from inception to March 2019. The pooled prevalence for overall PTSD was 55.6% (95% CI: 49.9–61.3). It was 60.2% (95% CI: 54.1–66.3) and 49.2% (95% CI: 39.4–59) for Iranian and Pakistani survivors, respectively. Women experienced higher incidence of PTSD than men. The variation of PTSD based on the clinical interview was lower than the self-report approach. The interval time between the earthquakes and the assessment showed that the prevalence of PTSD decreased over time. The prevalence of PTSD in Iran and Pakistan was higher than the global average, and the rate of the disorder in Iran was higher than in Pakistan. Sex, method of assessment, and time lag between the occurrence of disaster and assessment of PTSD affect the prevalence.
Understanding people’s perception of community resilience to disaster is important. This study explores the correlations of household livelihood assets, the adopted household disaster preparedness activities, and individuals’ assessment of community resilience.
The data was collected in 2018 by surveying a group of survivors affected by the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in China. The CART (Community Advancing Resilience Toolkit) was used to measure individuals’ perception of community resilience, while the livelihood assets included financial, physical, natural, human, and social capitals owned by the family, and the preparedness contained 13 activities. Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression models were used to test our hypotheses.
Social capital is consistently and positively associated with the overall individuals’ perceived community resilience, while the natural, human, and financial capitals’ effects are not significant. The awareness and participation preparedness activities are positively correlated with the perceived community resilience, but the material preparedness activities are not.
Social capital and disaster preparedness activities are critical in building community resilience. Community resilience can be achieved by making the community more connected and by providing disaster preparedness interventions.
The multidisciplinary research described here shows how archaeologists can help reconstruct past seismic episodes and understand the subsequent relief operation, rehabilitation, and reconstruction processes. In October 1522, a major earthquake and landslide struck the then capital of the Azores, Vila Franca do Campo, 1500 km from the European mainland. Damage was extensive, destroying key monuments, affecting most of the inhabited area, and leaving few survivors among the early colonists. The results from twenty-six archaeological trenches, geological and geoarchaeological investigations, and documentary analysis are reviewed here. Distinctive archaeological deposits are identified and explained, using the high density of artefacts and the erosional contact between the landslide and the pre-1522 palaeosol to reconstruct the episode in detail.
Chapter 4 of De mundo concludes the first, ‘scientific’ part of the treatise, which contains a description of the universe. Chapter 4 deals with the phenomena that belong to the science of meteorology as the ancients understood it, which included not only all kinds of precipitation, cloud formations, wind and thunder, but also phenomena such as shooting stars, earthquakes, tides and volcanic eruptions. Chapter 4 of De mundo shows similarity with Aristotle’s Meteorology in theory and general structure, but there are notable differences – the construction of the wind rose, omission of the Milky Way, and the inclusion of a lunar tide theory – which seem to indicate another source for this chapter. This is also indicated by the compendium style of Chapter 4: instead of offering causal explanations of the meteorological phenomena, the author proceeds by dividing them into groups and then briefly describing each member of every group. Some scholars have argued that the source of this chapter of De mundo is Posidonius’ treatise on meteorology. Despite some striking similarities, reasons are given against accepting this thesis. It is suggested that an earlier compendium of meteorology, combining Peripatetic and Stoic elements, was the principal source of Chapter 4 of De mundo.
This study analyzes the effects of the Pedernales earthquake (April 2016) on Ecuador’s health care system.
A research was carried out in Chone Canton, which combined documentary, quantitative, and qualitative techniques. Epidemiological and service production information taken from official documents was analyzed systematically. In-depth interviews and surveys were conducted with health care program directors and technicians from the Health Centres of the Ministry of Public Health and the users.
Deficiencies in the health care system were already observed in Chone Canton prior to the earthquake mainly due to the lack of doctors, nurses, and hospital beds. According to the interviewees, the health district was not prepared for an emergency like the earthquake. Some buildings fell after the earthquake, and Chone Hospital was disabled. These problems coupled with preventive action failures at the community level led to an increase in diseases after the earthquake.
The shortage of personnel and physical infrastructure, weaknesses in primary health care in the Ecuadorian health system, the lack of preparation, and limited availability of information on health indicators were the causes of the sharp increase in pre-existing diseases in the area, and of new epidemic outbreaks after the earthquake.
The purpose of this study is to analyze a strategy for the assignment and transportation of injured patients to hospital to decrease the demand on transportation, in both predisaster and postdisaster periods, on the Anatolian side of Istanbul.
Two approaches are used in this study: a Voronoi diagram, and a heuristic approach to the problem of scheduling. A Voronoi diagram is used to divide the city into 74 regions, where each hospital has a certain region of responsibility. The transportation strategy of 1 hospital is modeled by minimizing the makespan (ie, the maximal completion time) and the work-in-process, which are used as different objectives in scheduling theory.
The total waiting time of 100 injured people was minimized to 13,036 min when a total of 3 vehicles was used in the studied region, on the Asian side of Istanbul. The transportation capacity and total operating capacity of the hospitals should be approximately equal.
The people of Istanbul will be in a safer position if the suggested measures are implemented. This is an important consideration, as Istanbul is situated in a region where serious earthquakes are possible at any moment.
In this study, we aimed to evaluate the correlation between the trauma score of individuals wounded in the Lushan earthquake and emergency workload for treatment. We further created a trauma score-emergency workload calculation model.
We included data from patients wounded in the Lushan earthquake and treated at West China Hospital, Sichuan University. We calculated scores per the following models separately: Revised Trauma Score (RTS), Prehospital Index (PHI), Circulation Respiration Abdominal Movement Speech (CRAMS), Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System (TISS-28), and Nursing Activities Score (NAS). We assessed the association between values for CRAMS, PHI, and RTS and those for TISS-28 and NAS. Subsequently, we built a trauma score-emergency workload calculation model to quantitative workload estimation.
Significant correlations were observed for all pairs of trauma scoring models with emergency workload scoring models. TISS-28 score was significantly associated with PHI score and RTS; however, no significant correlation was observed between the TISS-28 score and CRAMS score.
CRAMS, PHI, and RTS were consistent in evaluating the injury condition of wounded individuals; TISS-28 and NAS scores were consistent in evaluating the required treatment workload. Dynamic changes in emergency workload in unit time were closely associated with wounded patient visits.
The aim of this study is to determine the demographic and clinical characteristics associated with the need for long-term treatment in a child psychiatry facility.
Demographic characteristics, diagnosis, source of referral, time elapsed between the earthquake and the request for care, and the treatment prescribed in the baseline assessment were compared between a group of subjects that required long-term treatment (LTT) and a group that was discharged after a brief intervention (D).
A total of 171 patients were seen, and 27% of the subjects required LTT. In general, these subjects were younger, referred from highly affected areas, presented a delay in seeking care, and were mainly diagnosed with anxiety and stress-related disorders.
These findings suggest the need for research regarding the design of mental health programs for the early detection of psychopathology after natural disasters in children and adolescents.
Chapter 1 shows the varied ways in which colonial administrative traditions approached the study of landscape. Through the case study of the discovery of Maya ruins near Palenque in Chiapas in the 1780s, it examines the way officials and scholars within the Guatemala City government understood and recorded information about manmade and natural landscapes. It argues that concerns about Central American environments, including the threat of volcanic eruptions and earthquakes, informed the explorations of this site, illuminating the extent to which concerns about natural factors influenced day-to-day understandings of landscapes and the practice of governance in Central America. These practices in turn established powerful models for the work of later reformers. The methodologies of information-gathering and the debates about the site also highlighted the idea of economic improvement through harnessing existing natural resources. This was central to the economic thought of the Bourbon reforms, which was clearly widespread across Guatemala at this time. Officials, engineers, and scholars ‘read’ from the landscape: Palenque’s landscapes were seen throughout the period as key to questions of its past glory and future potential.
To date, we have only limited evidence of the determinants of earthquake inpatient mortality-related factors. This study is among the first to explore related factors of inpatient deaths using data from multiple hospitals and multiple earthquakes.
We included and retrospectively analyzed data on 32,976 earthquake inpatients in the West China Earthquake Patients Database. Of these, we analyzed the records of 284 patients who died during hospitalization. We collected 12 dichotomous variables with reference to previous reports: patients’ age (both ≤ 15 years and ≥ 65 years), gender, prehospital treatment, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, the presence of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), trunk injury, severe poly-trauma, crush syndrome, multiple-system organ failure (MSOF), infection, and cardiac/respiratory disease. We performed multivariate logistic regression analysis to explore independent related factors of mortality.
Ultimately, we identified severe TBI, MSOF, old age (≥ 65 years), ICU admission, crush syndrome, and cardiac/respiratory disease as independent mortality-related factors. Severe TBI was the greatest risk factor of inpatient death (ods ratio [OR], 31.913, 95% confidence interval [CI], 20.484-49.720), followed by MSOF (OR 30.905, 95% CI, 21.733-43.947).
To reduce earthquake inpatient mortalities, the related factors analyzed in this study should be prioritized in future inpatient earthquake response strategies.
Exposure to earthquakes has been associated with psychological distress and in particular the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Earthquake-related psychological distress can be longstanding. The present study involved 157 Greek survivors of the 1999 Parnitha earthquake assessed approximately 4 years after the earthquake. Assessments were based on the Traumatic Stress Symptom Checklist (TSSC). Using stringent calibrations for the estimation of symptom presence 25% of the survivors endorsed at least 5 and 12% at least 10 TSSC symptoms. Approximately 22% of the survivors reported subjective distress and 15% impaired adjustment due to their symptoms. Intensity of fear during the earthquake and participation in rescue operations related to greater post-earthquake psychological distress. The results suggest that the psychological consequences of earthquakes can be serious and long-standing even when the magnitude of the earthquake is moderate. Psychological treatments that have been proven to reduce fear and PTSD symptoms need to be made available to the survivors. Such treatments may also increase the survivors' psychological preparedness and emotional resilience in view of future earthquakes.
This study was undertaken 6–7 months after the 1999 Athens earthquake with the aim of exploring the differences in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety and depression symptoms between a group of children exposed to earthquake with a group of children not exposed to it, but with both groups potentially exposed to the same levels of post-earthquake adversities. The study included 2037 children, aged 9–17 years, who were assessed with self-completed questionnaires. The directly exposed group (N = 1752) had significantly higher anxiety and PTSD scores than the indirectly exposed group (N = 284), but no significant group differences were found in depression scores. Girls in both groups reported significantly more PTSD, anxiety and depressive symptoms than boys. Younger children reported significantly more PTSD and anxiety symptoms than the older ones. No significant interactions were found between direct exposure to earthquake, age group and gender. The severity of PTSD symptoms was most strongly predicted by greater perceived threat during the earthquake, whereas depression was most strongly predicted by the level of post-earthquake adversity. The severity of anxiety symptoms was most strongly predicted by female gender. These findings are discussed in relation to the need for screening and intervention following earthquake events.
Tectonic hazards have profoundly influenced Māori relationships with, and understandings of, the environment, with oral histories and ethnographic records referencing recurring encounters with volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and tsunamis across Aotearoa-New Zealand. This research works alongside members of the Māori kin-group Ngāti Kuri to deliberate and compare active oral histories with two ethnographic records that potentially refer to ancestral experience with past tsunami(s) in the Kaikōura region. It applies an inductive-based methodology informed by “collaborative storytelling,” with the intent to appreciate the manner in which Ngāti Kuri interpret their past and present. The research affirms past catastrophic saltwater inundations and potential tectonic disturbances in the Kaikōura region. It also affirms that ethnographic records are not necessarily full or accurate accounts of historical events. The accounts presented here contribute to the reclaiming of Ngāti Kuri histories and point to new plural learning opportunities about coseismic tsunami hazard and history across the region.
There is a paucity of long-term prospective disaster studies of the psychological sequelae among survivors.
At 1½ and 25 years after the Spitak earthquake, 142 early adolescents from two cities were assessed: Gumri (moderate–severe exposure) and Spitak (very severe exposure). The Gumri group included treated and not-treated subjects, while the Spitak group included not-treated subjects. Instruments included: DSM-III-R PTSD-Reaction Index (PTSD-RI); DSM-5 PTSD-Checklist (PCL); Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS); and Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D).
(1) Between 1½ and 25 years, PTSD rates and mean scores decreased significantly in the three groups (over 50%). However, at 25 years 9.1–22.4% met DSM-5 PTSD criteria. (2) At 1½ years, the Spitak group had higher PTSD-RI (p < 0.001) and DSRS scores (p < 0.001) compared to the Gumri-not-treated group. At 25 years, the Spitak group that had experienced fewer post-earthquake adversities (p < 0.03), had a greater decrease in PTSD-RI scores (p < 0.02), and lower CES-D scores (p < 0.01). (3) Before treatment, PTSD-RI and DSRS scores did not differ between the Gumri-treated and not-treated groups. At 25-years, the Gumri-treated group showed a greater decrease in PTSD-RI scores (p < 0.03), and lower mean PTSD-RI (p < 0.02), PCL (p < 0.02), and CES-D (p < 0.01) scores. (4) Predictors of PTSD symptom severity at 25-years included: home destruction, treatment, social support, post-earthquake adversities, and chronic medical illnesses.
Post-disaster PTSD and depressive symptoms can persist for decades. Trauma-focused treatment, alleviation of post-disaster adversities, improving the social ecology, and monitoring for chronic medical illnesses are essential components of recovery programs.
The role of the ophthalmologist in the field hospital is important and irreplaceable; ocular injuries during a disaster can result in considerable disability and often require the care of an ophthalmologic surgeon. The ophthalmology field is a high technology area with the need for expensive equipment that are not available in the field hospital. The working scenario for the ophthalmologist in the delegation is very different than the one existing in a hospital in developed countries; therefore, first and foremost, a change in mental attitude is needed.
Understanding the characteristics of ocular injuries during various types of disasters in different geographical areas is important to be able to prepare for them properly, both mentally and practically.
Another dominant factor is time: the nature of ophthalmology patient’s varies significantly as time passes.
While in the first days after the disaster most ocular injuries are related to disaster, as time passes most of the referral patients are nondisaster related injuries such as chronic ocular problems of the local population.
This chapter covers the preparation needed for treating ocular injuries during disasters and the ophthalmology layout in the field hospital scenario.