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This article examines the presence of 605 armed groups in today's conflict environment by bringing new evidence based on internal research. It looks in particular at the way these non-State entities provide varying degrees of services to the population in the spaces that they control, and how this might impact the way a humanitarian organization like the ICRC engages with them in a dialogue over time. This model of analysis is then used to situate and better explain armed groups’ positions on the COVID crisis.
Authors are made aware in this chapter of the nature of peer reviewing, its very positive and its often negative side. The relationship between the author,editor and peer reviewers can be stressful and instruction is given in how to deal with them. Reporting methods can differ, and the level of detailed comment differs widely.The author is given advice on how to handle the problems this three-way exchange.The nature of rebuttal is considered. Abuse of the peer-reviewing system and its anonimity are discussed.
Editorial matters can be complex. These include how editors reach their decision, appeals against non-acceptance, revision and its difficulties, problems in creating the final version and moving it on to the publication procedure.
The collective mind often attributes the image of a modern Latin classroom to a teacher writing on a chalkboard in front of students eagerly memorising the declensions in silence. However, as part of their search for innovative and effective practices, Latin instructors have consistently expanded their gaze beyond the traditional parameters of rote memorisation for at least since the pioneering efforts of W.H.D. Rouse, looking to more innovative models presented by novel methods for inspiration and to the halls of predecessors in hopes of fostering a more engaging learning environment. Upon close comparative study between the modern pedagogical methods in Latin classrooms and the perspective of Renaissance scholar Petrarch, this study identified a commonality between the two: emphasis on dialogue between different members of the classroom and personal interpretations of preceding authors’ works for a better opportunity of comprehending the content. Grounded in the philosophies of the Socratic method, Petrarch claimed that an important element of the tradition of pedagogy finds expression in dialogues, imitation, and the significance of fully comprehending the topic in pursuit of wisdom. Likewise, many institutions of the U.K. and the United States, strengthened by the emergence of dialectic assessment applications during the Covid-19 Pandemic, are working towards a new norm in place. After conducting an in-depth interpretation of primary and secondary sources regarding Petrarch's pedagogy, as well as research of its modern developments and the applications, the comparison suggests a new direction for the Classics community to consider going forward.
The originality and impact of Sexual Perversity in Chicago by David Mamet and its influence on the Chicago theater scene is the focus of this chap-ter, showing how the language and subject matter of the play almost single-handily overturned Chicago theater in the 1970s. Previously a try-out town for productions headed to Broadway, or a stop for touring plays, Mamet and a cohort of young directors and actors initiated a series of experimental theaters off-Loop (out of downtown), providing a breeding ground for new plays that inverted traditional formats. Emerging out of a tradition of minor but experimental theater groups like the early Little Theatre, this new form of theater soon took shape with the Compass Players, the Organic Theater, Second City, Body Politic, and Steppenwolf. Theater took on new methods of presentation and subject matter with Mamet leading the way. With its frank talk about sex and relationships, Sexual Perversity in Chicago set the tone for new dramatic experiences, offending some but, more importantly, finding newer and younger audiences eager for unique theatrical experiences representing contemporary urban life.
This chapter outlines the remaining constitutive elements of the ecological security discourse, noting what means it encourages in responding to the threat climate change poses to ecosystem resilience and developing an account of which actors have responsibility for the preservation or advancement of security in this discourse. On the question of means, the chapter argues that an ecological security discourse encourages a focus on significant mitigation action, while also noting a potential role for adaptation to inevitable effects and even controversial practices associated with geoengineering. It notes in the process what sets of principles should inform how we approach such practices, emphasizing the importance of dialogue, reflexivity and humility in ensuring that practices carried out in the name of ecological security serve to minimize harm to the most vulnerable. The chapter then defines responsibility for addressing ecological security in terms of capacity, noting a potential role for a wide range of actors – from states to intergovernmental organizations, private corporations to individuals – in advancing ecological security in practice.
The chapter examines literary translation as a fundamental part of Elizabeth Bishop’s creative effort and as a valuable context for the reading of her original works. It demonstrates how Bishop’s translations from several foreign languages (Ancient Greek, French, Portuguese, Spanish), which span a variety of genres (comedy, diary, short stories, lyric poetry, avant-garde prose poems, ballad, folk songs), and which she worked on throughout her career, relate to her own poetry’s topics, styles, poetic strategies, and language. Her views of translation are discussed in relation to her poetic principles, and it is suggested that translation as a creative stance exploring the complex interrelations between the foreign and the familiar is an essential principle underlying Bishop’s own poetics.
This chapter describes Gadamer’s initial understanding of the nature and significance of Platonic philosophy in terms of dialogue and dialectic. It then provides a brief account of Gadamer’s own interpretive method as presented in Truth and Method. The chapter then shows how Gadamer changed his understanding of Plato, particularly in relation to Aristotle. The chapter shows how this new understanding of Plato provides the ontological foundation for Gadamer’s own “hermeneutics.” Finally, we see how Gadamer’s readings of ancient philosophers constitute a fundamental challenge and correction to the mode of interpretation still dominant in Anglo-American philosophy.
Gadamer’s hermeneutics is concerned with the experience of understanding that takes place in living language. Living language is a matter of conversation and dialogue. Conversation and dialogue always take place in a living language within the historical context of a tradition. Gadamer’s hermeneutics challenges philosophy’s usual focus on the logic of statements. This is a profoundly Socratic-Platonic idea. The world is presented in language as a communicative event which is dialogical. The dialectic of the word in hermeneutics has a speculative structure.
This chapter explores the historical relationship between Heidegger and Gadamer. It points out several surprises and disappointments that Gadamer experienced with Heidegger. More importantly, the chapter considers the phenomenological character of Gadamer’s philosophical hermeneutics. Gadamer rejects many of the basic characteristics of Husserl’s phenomenology, but he is also indebted deeply to other aspects of Husserl’s phenomenology. These aspects he also shares with Heidegger–the concepts of horizon and lifeworld, the account of temporality, and the rejection of a representational epistemology. The chapter points out the distinctiveness of Gadamer’s philosophical hermeneutics in relation to Heidegger’s. Gadamer’s hermeneutics is more dialogical, embraces the antinomy of beginnings, and embraces Plato and Aristotle.
The Conclusion emphasises the dialogic, performative properties of politique both as a word and as a character, and emphasises that although the particular politique problem traced in the book is a sixteenth-century phenomenon, there is no particular rupture between the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries; I explore continuities and differences across the decades after the end of the wars, and consider the political writings of Cardinal Richelieu and Gabriel Naudé. The Conclusion also argues that sixteenth-century debates about politics and politiques had a long-term impact on the European political imagination; it looks briefly at early modern English and contemporary French examples to consider this. It further considers what room there might be for optimism amid the negativity attached to politics in the early modern period.
Chapter 6 considers two works that respond both to the polemical writings of c. 1588–89 (discussed in Chapter 5) and the immediate political circumstances of the failed Estates General of 1593 and the (re)conversion of Henri de Navarre to Protestantism. These are the Dialogue d’entre le maheustre et le Manant and the Satyre ménippée. I argue that these works redescribe politique qualities and behaviours as a means of intervening in the end stages of the civil wars. The Dialogue resists redescription whereas the Satyre constantly engages in redescription of the terms of conflict and the moral status of the key players. Both texts are strongly focused on Paris, the Catholic stronghold; the Dialogue seeks to defend Paris as a world unto itself and as a city loyal to supranational Catholicism; the Satyre sees it as a crucial microcosm of France as a whole and seeks to establish French (and Gallican) independence from external influences. The term politique is a kind of boundary marker here, invested with proto-Marxist class struggle as well as being represented as an agent in the rhetorical battles that accompanied the wars, and in the outcome of the conflict.
Ibsen, more than any other playwright, established realism as a vital mode in the theatre. The nature of Ibsen’s realism, however, warrants careful description. Realism for Ibsen is simultaneously a theatrical technique and a philosophical stance. We find realism at work in Ibsen’s dialogue, scenery and characterization, as well as in the plays’ relentless critique of bourgeois ideals. Ibsen was not the first realist dramatist, but he remains its most influential practitioner. This legacy is somewhat ironic, given the disturbing surreality that leeches through the realist surface of his plays. And yet, the spark of recognition the plays continue to ignite bears witness to realism’s effectiveness, as audiences continue to find themselves represented, in all their faults, in his towering dramas.
Chapter 6 introduces discourse analysis and explores some of the discursive tools that visitors use to inform, organize, and interpret experiences they have at the zoo. We highlight dialogue and metaphor as distinctly relevant discursive mechanisms for the learning that tends to occur as zoogoers negotiate multiple narratives and multisensory, emotional experiences during their visit – and simultaneously and subsequently integrate those experiences into their existing mental, narrative, and moral frameworks. Because nature and human–nature relationships are neither fixed nor uniform, we suggest that, rather than seek to enforce a singular narrative, agenda, and strategy for conservation, zoo leaders should focus on establishing and developing their spaces and their staff as flexible resources equipped to facilitate idea sharing and accountability through civic mechanisms of discourse development and dialogic exchange. Because on-site educators can deepen visitors’ engagement and retention of information but are not visitors’ sole source of ideas or information, we focus on how zoo staff can use context and metaphor to flexibly initiate or adapt discourse and dialogue to fit the setting and different zoogoers’ existing knowledge and intentions. We note that context becomes an important scaffold when spaces for knowledge sharing and reasoning enable diverse learners with varied foundational knowledge and perspectives to reach new levels of understanding, commitment, and conflict resolution.
The Russian radical émigré Alexander Herzen left three works that focus on 1848: two volumes of essays, and his great autobiography, My Past and Thoughts, in which his life story pivots around 1848. Herzen, who emigrated in 1847, describes himself as arriving in Paris as pilgrims once arrived at Jerusalem. By his own account, he rapidly discovered the fundamentally bourgeois character of French civilization and then witnessed the crushing of the June insurrection. The political debacle was compounded by personal tragedy – the deaths of his mother and son and his wife Natalie. In all his writings we find Herzen seeking a perspective from which the collapse of his pre-revolutionary ideals would make sense. His most powerful essays are jeremiads lamenting his broken dreams, replaying the June insurrection, and reflecting on the powerlessness of historical actors to change the world. Attempting to explain what went wrong in 1848, Herzen insists on the inability of European radicals to get beyond models drawn from the first French Revolution or Christianity or both. For Herzen, as for Proudhon (whom he admired) and Marx (whom he did not admire) the fatal weakness of the left lay in its inability to emancipate itself from memories that served to justify and cloak the return of repressive centralized government.
Hu Yaobang's death sparked student protests in Beijing, which escalated when protesters felt ignored by officials after Hu's memorial service on April 22, 1989. General Secretary Zhao Ziyang and Premier Li Peng disagreed about how to handle the protests before Zhao left for North Korea on April 23. In Zhao's absence, Li and other officials presented their views to Deng Xiaoping, who labeled the protests "turmoil," sparking a march of approximately 100,000 people disputing this characterization.
Protesters outside Beijing took cues from what demonstrators were doing in the capital. From demanding dialogue to staging hunger strikes, protests touched every province and autonomous region in China, and took on different shapes based on local dynamics.
Based on the analysis of a meeting with nineteen women from civil society with diverse backgrounds, invited to discuss what has gone wrong in Turkey’s Kurdish peace process and what women can do for peace in a highly polarized atmosphere, this article explores women’s dialogue in a conflict situation. With insights from deliberative and agonistic perspectives, the article shows that in a multiple-identity conflict, topical shifts in dialogue are accompanied by shifting alliances. The search for mutual definitions on conflictual issues renders the deliberation of sensitive issues difficult, so women circumvent polarizing discourses through indirect and covert language. However, the discussion of gender-based experiences with direct, contestational language helps women underline shared issues and address resentments. Dialogue’s transformative potential also depends on the existence of trust and an intersectionality perspective for which further dialogic initiatives should develop strategies.
The final chapter presents the conclusions of the book, looking specifically at how speaking publicly gives people authority, particularly when others listen to and support them. Then it discusses the challenges and opportunities of speaking about one's faith in contemporary, technologically mediated contexts. Finally, how diversity of belief is managed within religious communities is discussed, in relation to the data analysed in the previous chapters.