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Chapter 3 pairs the expansion of liberal and religious solutions to working-class problems with increasing labor radicalism in Cuba. In the second decade of the twentieth century, the Catholic church and Cuban government created institutions to help domestic servants and to institutionalize education in domestic sciences for young women. The 1910s were also marked by phenomena that challenged these charity and education-based initiatives: rapidly increasing Caribbean migration to Cuba, growing labor unrest, and the feminist movement. These contradictory trends all found expression in the experiences of and discourse surrounding domestic workers. During the revolutionary upheaval of 1933, domestic workers acted in solidarity with other workers, helping to occupy mills and demanding increased formal attention to their labor. This chapter also considers the politics of the archives and how domestic workers were written out of stories of labor resistance at the very moment such resistance occurred.
Metacercariae of the genus Posthodiplostomum are often recorded in freshwater fish hosts. While the diversity and taxonomy of this genus are receiving increasing attention in molecular phylogenetic studies, available data remain geographically biased. Most molecular studies of Posthodiplostomum and morphologically similar (neascus) worms originate in North America and Europe and Asia (more than 60% of DNA sequences are from USA and Canada), with few data currently available from the Neotropics, where high host diversity suggests high and under-sampled parasite diversity. In this study, we report molecular and morphological data from metacercariae of Posthodiplostomum in fish in Puerto Rico, where only a single species has been previously reported. Partial sequences of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 from metacercariae from Dajaus monticola (native to Puerto Rico) and the introduced fishes Poecilia reticulata, Parachromis managuensis, Lepomis macrochirus and Micropterus salmoides revealed 7 genetically distinct species-level lineages, of which 4 were novel. We report novel molecular life-cycle linkages in Posthodiplostomum macrocotyle (metacercariae in muscle of the cichlid Pa. managuensis), a species previously known only from adults in birds from South America; and in Posthodiplostomum sp. 23 (metacercariae in poeciliids), which has recently been found in Ardea herodias in Georgia, USA. We also report the first molecular data from Posthodiplostomum sp. 8 in M. salmoides in the Caribbean. Metacercariae of most species were morphologically distinguished and all displayed narrow specificity for fish hosts, with no indication of parasite sharing among introduced and native fishes.
Hierarchies at Home traces the experiences of Cuban domestic workers from the abolition of slavery through the 1959 revolution. Domestic service – childcare, cleaning, chauffeuring for private homes – was both ubiquitous and ignored as formal labor in Cuba, a phenomenon made possible because of who supposedly performed it. In Cuban imagery, domestic workers were almost always black women and their supposed prevalence in domestic service perpetuated the myth of racial harmony. African-descended domestic workers were 'like one of the family', just as enslaved Cubans had supposedly been part of the families who owned them before slavery's abolition. This fascinating work challenges this myth, revealing how domestic workers consistently rejected their invisibility throughout the twentieth century. By following a group marginalized by racialized and gendered assumptions, Anasa Hicks destabilizes traditional analyses on Cuban history, instead offering a continuous narrative that connects pre- and post-revolutionary Cuba.
One of the earliest studies that focused on functioning in the Caribbean people was recorded in Edith Clarke’s book first published in 1957. This study used direct and participant observations in multiple Jamaican communities. Although this and earlier studies did not use standard psychological testing, they were among some of the first efforts to use systematic methods to observe functioning in Caribbean people. Since the mid-twentieth century, multiple studies conducted in the region have used tests and measures designed by researchers of European heritage for people of similar backgrounds who reside primarily from North America and Europe. Equally important is that such assessment tools are used in clinical as well as industrial and organizational contexts. While these tools have provided important information on Caribbean people’s functioning, their lack of attention to reliability and validity concerns for the Caribbean populations have made their findings somewhat questionable. This chapter addresses the historical use of psychological assessment in practice and research throughout the Caribbean region. Although to a lesser extent, it also focuses on contemporary use of psychological assessment tools in the Caribbean context.
People from different areas of the insular Caribbean and the coastal zone of mainland South America moved in and out of the Lesser Antilles throughout the archipelago's history before the European invasion. Successive migrations, the development of networks of human mobility, and the exchange of goods and ideas, as well as constantly shifting inter-insular alliances, created diverse ethnic and cultural communities in these small islands. We argue that these processes of alliance-building and ethnicity can be best understood through the concept of creolization. We examine this idea first in terms of the cultural interactions reflected in the pottery traditions that emerged among the Windward Islands before colonization, and second by analyzing the historiographical and emerging archaeological information available on the formation of the Indigenous Kalinago/Kalipuna and Garifuna identities from the late fifteenth to the early seventeenth centuries. Finally, we discuss the colonial and contemporary Afro-Caribbean pottery traditions on these islands, in particular Grenada and Saint Lucia. The embedding of this study in a deep historical framework serves to underscore the divergent origins and developmental trajectories of the region. including the disruption of the Indigenous cultures and the impact of European colonization, the African diaspora, and the emergence of today's cosmopolitan Caribbean cultural tradition.
Wilhelmine Germany's Weltpolitik is widely regarded as a precursor to World War I, as a reckless break from the Bismarckian past, and as a counterproductive form of German deviation from European norms. Yet, when one reexamines certain German overseas expansion schemes between 1897 and the early 1900s, a strong intellectual continuity emerges between the methods of Weltpolitik and wider views about colonial sovereignty. Like Bismarck and other European imperial powers in the late nineteenth century, the actors producing Weltpolitik sought to enlist private businessmen in colonial governance, as well as to parcel and transfer sovereignty as a commodity in places like the Caribbean island of St. John. Counterintuitively, this way of treating sovereignty was highly imitative and compliant with norms, both at home and abroad. It also represented an alternative, at least at times, to a more aggressive course in foreign policy.
When most people think of early America, they imagine a geographical region that encompasses the present-day United States. Like previous chapters in this volume, the present chapter encourages a broader conception of the region by, in this case, illuminating the importance of the Caribbean as a physical space and as an idea in early American literature. The Caribbean was a battle ground for empire. Consequently, those texts written in and about the region can tell us a great deal about European exploration and settler colonialism, transatlantic slavery, capitalism and modernity, colonial resistance, and the diasporic, migratory patterns of people, which are themes that pervade early American literature in general. This chapter, then, offers an overview of that literature, highlighting the literary contours of a Caribbean America. The discussion homes in on the anglophone Caribbean and its place within the literary imagination of English-language texts of early America and addresses three questions: How do English-language texts of early America imagine the Caribbean? How do we read those texts within the wider field of early American literature? And why does it matter?
The virtual removal of forest canopies through light detection and ranging (lidar) has enhanced archaeological interpretations of settlement patterns in tropical zones. Although lidar collections of Indigenous landscapes in the Caribbean Archipelago are limited, resolutions from open-access lidar datasets reveal coarse regional settlement patterns and large-scale architecture planning. In this article we inspect the Caguana Ceremonial complex in Utuado, Borikén (Puerto Rico), using a 2016 lidar dataset available through the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration portal. Visual comparisons between known Indigenous sites, surface anomalies, and site inspections in the three sectors under study identified plazas, possible ancient paths into the Caguana complex, a possible agricultural area west of the site, and the ANG-4 site. This study, the first application of lidar inspections in Puerto Rican archaeology, demonstrates that open-access data can help guide research and save time in field surveys, thus improving our ability to protect the Indigenous cultural heritage hidden under forest canopies.
This article uses a lawsuit between British engineers and Dominican merchants over a sugar estate mortgage to examine how transnational capital networks functioned at the local level during a moment of transition in the late nineteenth-century global economy. When Dominican courts ruled against the engineers, the firm unsuccessfully sought diplomatic intervention, raising questions on the one hand about the incremental construction of Dominican sovereignty and on the other about the links between diplomatic and business networks on the ground. It is situated within calls for new approaches to the history of the Dominican Republic that utilize international archives and focus on corporate bodies, both in local and Pan-Caribbean contexts.
This paper provides a field report on a hospital fire at the St. Jude hospital in the Eastern Caribbean Island of Saint Lucia. The hospital was completely destroyed by the fire and three deaths were recorded. This paper analyses the emergency response to this hospital fire and discusses the lessons learned from this experience. This is a valuable lesion for developing countries in the Caribbean, especially since there have been four hospital fires reported in the Caribbean within the past decade.
The Caribbean has seen a dramatic shift in the obesity and chronic disease prevalence over the past decades, suggesting a nutrition transition. Simultaneously, Martinique has faced a demographic transition marked by significant population ageing. We aimed to differentiate the contribution of changes in health status and dietary intakes due to shifts in demographic and socio-economic characteristics (DSEC) from that due to unobserved factors.
Two cross-sectional surveys conducted in 2003 (n 743) and 2013 (n 573) on representative samples were used. Dietary intakes were estimated by 24-h recalls. The contribution of changes in health status and dietary intakes due to shifts in observed DSEC was differentiated from that due to unobserved factors over a 10-year interval, using Oaxaca–Blinder decomposition models.
Martinique, French region in the Caribbean.
Martinican adults (≥16 years).
Over the study period, health status deteriorated, partly owing to shifts in DSEC, explaining 62 % of the change in the prevalence of hypertension (+13 percentage points (pp)) and 48 % of waist circumference change (+3 cm). Diet quality decreased (mean adequacy ratio –2pp and mean excess ratio + 2 pp) and energy supplied by ultra-processed food increased (+4 pp). Shifts in DSEC marginally explained some changes in dietary intakes (e.g. increased diet quality), while the changes that remained unexplained were of opposite sign, with decreased diet quality, lower fruits, tubers and fish intakes and higher energy provided by ultra-processed foods.
Explained dietary changes were of opposite sign to nutrition transition conceptual framework, probably because unobserved drivers are in play, such as food price trends or supermarkets spread.
Numerous island species have gone extinct and many extant, but threatened, island endemics require ongoing monitoring of their conservation status. The small tree Vachellia anegadensis was formerly thought to occur only on the limestone island of Anegada in the British Virgin Islands and was categorized as Critically Endangered. However, in 2008 it was discovered on the volcanic island of Fallen Jerusalem, c. 35 km from Anegada, and in 2018 it was recategorized as Endangered. To inform conservation interventions, we examined the species’ distribution, genetic population structure, dependency on pollinators and preferred habitat, and documented any threats. We found V. anegadensis to be locally widespread on Anegada but uncommon on Fallen Jerusalem and established that geographical location does not predict genetic differentiation amongst populations. Vachellia anegadensis produces the highest number of seed pods when visited by animal pollinators, in particular Lepidoptera. Introduced animals and disturbance by humans appear to be the main threats to V. anegadensis, and in situ conservation is critical for the species’ long-term survival.
GIS modeling and analysis of multispectral satellite imagery are applied to a former plantation in the British Virgin Islands (BVI), which, in 1831, became a settlement of free Africans who lived within slavery-based British colonialism. A map of the settlement represents the paternalist British government ideal for this community—an “experiment” for controlling a postemancipation peasantry—and the techniques discussed here allow clearer understanding of the way these ideals would have interacted with the physical and social landscape of the BVI had they been implemented. The residents were certainly aware of their situation, and this study does not mean to imply that they simply adopted the plan they were handed. Instead, our goal is to interrogate the implications of the plan itself. We combine least cost path (LCP), Normalized Difference Vegetation Indexes (NDVI), and other technical analyses to show the interaction of the British plan and the BVI landscape in order to describe the context in which the Kingstown community was built and maintained. Although schematic, this study quantifies at least some of the barriers the community overcame and contributes in a limited way to broader considerations of the place of land and landscape in structures of colonialism.
This chapter examines the nature of modern piracy and its impact on the human rights of seafarers taken hostage. By evaluating some of the key counter-piracy measures of the international community, this chapter shows that significant attention has been paid to the protection of the human rights of arrested pirates while the suffering of seafarers has been overlooked. This has been an inevitable outcome of the emphasis that states have been placing on criminal law enforcement measures. The use of force, arrest, detention and prosecution of pirate suspects entail risks of human rights violations, which the international community acknowledged and sought to prevent. This, however, has detracted attention from the need to protect the victims of piracy whose human rights continue to be marginalised.
The period 1960–2010 was a time of marked immigration into the UK from Commonwealth countries, either to fill employment gaps in the UK or to escape hostilities and conflict as many Commonwealth countries secured independence. The political climate of the UK; attitudes to immigration and cultural integration; the evolution of mental health sciences, including British psychiatry and the Royal College; the emerging research evidence; and the controversies around why migrants and minorities appeared to have higher incidence rates of severe mental illness and poorer outcomes were, and are still, all interrelated and contribute to the lives of minorities. In the 1970s, as a community, Black African Caribbean people of the Windrush generation were concerned about their children getting police attention, which occurred in a racist and political climate of oppression. More than sixty years later, the situation has escalated and diversified so that illegal drugs, gangs and violent crime are now stereotyped as ‘Black culture’. Inequalities generated by the education and criminal justice systems, early years care and employment practices are a backdrop against which the mental health systems are positioned to respond to societal harms to the marginalised.
This chapter traces the contours of Derek Walcott’s career from regional Caribbean author to English-based publishing success to relocation to the United States in the American university system. Shortly after the publication of Omeros in 1990, Walcott became the Caribbean region’s first writer of colour to win the Nobel Prize for Literature, an award associated with a wider recognition of a new Caribbean literary 'province' that had emerged in similar ways to the Irish and American 'provinces' of the early twentieth century. Omeros is an ambitious epic work that attempts to totalize both Walcott’s and the Caribbean region’s mixed indigenous, European, African and American heritages. But, like other earlier modernist epics, Omeros combines an exultant sense of literary accomplishment with anxieties of failure. As promises of new postcolonial beginnings for the Caribbean slide into visions of climate catastrophe, and as Walcott finds himself an émigré in an imperial and racist America, the poem oscillates between its affirmative and apocalyptic impulses.
The African reception of Christianity is compared to that of Islam and found to be similar, with a pattern of quarantine, mixing, and reform. The story in West Africa is told via the connection to the slave trade, slavery itself, and the back-to-Africa movement. Cases from East and South Africa are also presented, and the chapter concludes with a discussion of Pentecostalism.
After decades of study, much remains unknown about the foraging practices of the earliest inhabitants of Puerto Rico. Here, we present an analysis of the malacological assemblages of two neighboring and (partially) contemporary early sites from the island's southwest, finding intriguing intersite differences in shellfish collection practices. We attribute this diversity to differences in site type, chronology, or changes in local coastal configuration. This work not only provides insights into prehistoric Puerto Rican foraging dynamics but also demonstrates the importance of considering factors including intra-age chronology, site type, and changes in paleoenvironmental conditions when considering ancient foraging practices.
This chapter describes and explains the emergence of majoritarian decision-making in twenty-seven lower colonial assemblies in Ireland, mainland North America, and the Caribbean between 1619 and 1776. It documents the peculiar conditions under which majoritarian politics developed in the colonies while also registering the importance of attempts to imitate parliamentary practices. Colonial lower assemblies were created under conditions fundamentally different from those that prevailed in the Westminster House of Commons. Some were part of corporations and proprietorships, not royal colonies; and some initially admitted all freemen, not simply elected representatives. These factors led to distinctive institutional trajectories. In general and over the long run, these factors appear to have reinforced a tendency for the colonial lower assemblies to be or become majoritarian. By scrutinizing the available evidence, one is left with the overwhelming impression of a total embrace of majoritarian politics before the American Revolution and, in most cases, long before that time. As the colonial lower assemblies of North America became provincial congresses and then state lower assemblies, they predictably continued their majoritarian practices. This pattern continued in the first intercolonial assemblies and in the US House of Representatives.
The early colonial period witnessed new scales of connectivity and unprecedented projects of resource extraction across the Spanish Americas. Yet such transformations also drew heavily on preexisting Indigenous landscapes, technologies, and institutions. Drawing together recent discussions in archaeology and geography about mobility and resource materialities, this article takes the early colonial route as a central object of investigation and contributes to new emerging interpretive frameworks that make sense of Spanish colonialism in the Americas as a variable, large-scale, and materially constituted process. Using three case studies—the ruta de Colón on the island of Hispaniola, the routes connecting the southeastern Caribbean islands with mainland South America, and the ruta de la plata in the south-central Andes—we develop a comparative archaeological analysis that reveals divergent trajectories of persistence, appropriation, and erasure in the region's routes and regimes of extraction and mobility during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.