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The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of level and timing of silage supplementation during early lactation on animal performance and dry matter intake (DMI). Two farm-lets were established with a high (1253 kg DM/ha) and low (862 kg DM/ha) grass availability at turnout. In spring, cows were assigned to one of two treatments as they calved over 2 years; high grass (HG) and low grass (LG). During period 1 (week 1–6), cows on the HG treatment were offered a high daily herbage allowance (DHA) with low silage and the LG treatment were offered a low DHA with high silage. In period 2 (week 7–12), half of the cows from the HG treatment in P1 switched to the LG treatment in P2 and vice versa as 20 LG cows in P1 switched to the HG treatment in P2. Cows on the HG treatment in P2 received a high DHA with no silage and the LG treatment received a low DHA with 3 kg DM/cow silage. Grass DMI was significantly higher for the HG treatment during both periods (+1.6 and +3.4 kg DM/cow/day, respectively). The HG treatment produced +0.9 kg milk/cow/day and had a higher protein concentration (+1.1 g/kg milk) compared to cows on the LG treatment during period 2. Differences in animal performance observed in period 2 were maintained throughout the 8-week carryover period.
This research communication addressed the hypothesis that late lactation cows offered an oat-grain-based supplement or a high level of α-TOC supplementation at pasture would have improved milk composition and processability. Over a grazing period of 49 d, 48 Holstein Friesian dairy cows were randomly assigned to one of four dietary treatments. The dietary treatments were: control, pasture only (CTRL), pasture + 2.65 kg DM barley-based concentrate + 350 IU α-TOC/kg (BARLO), pasture + 2.65 kg DM oat-based concentrate + 350 IU α-TOC/kg (OATLO) and pasture + 2.65 kg DM oat-based concentrate + 1050 IU α-TOC/kg (OATHI). Within this randomised complete block design experiment cows were blocked on days in milk (DIM) and balanced for parity, milk yield and composition. Rennet coagulation time (RCT) was reduced in milk from cows offered OATHI compared to CTRL cows and OATLO. Concentration of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) was increased by OATHI compared to OATLO and in OATLO compared to CTRL. Supplementation with OATHI reduced individual saturated fatty acids (SFAs) in milk compared to OATLO. In conclusion, supplementing grazing dairy cows with an oat-based supplement improved total milk CLA concentration compared to pasture only. Offering a high level of α-TOC (2931 IU/d) to dairy cows reduced RCT, individual SFA and increased total CLA concentration of milk compared to a lower α-TOC level (738 IU α-TOC/d).
Prehospital blood transfusion has been adopted by many civilian helicopter emergency medical services agencies, and early outcomes are positive. The Shock Trauma Air Rescue Society operates six bases in Western Canada and started a blood on board process in 2013 in Regina that has expanded to all bases. Two units of O negative packed red blood cells are carried on every mission. We describe the processes and standard work ensuring safe storage, administration, and stewardship of this important resource.
The packed red blood cells are stored in an inexpensive, reusable temperature controlled cooler at 1°C–6°C. Close collaboration with local transfusion services and adherence to Canadian transfusion standards contributes to safety and sustainability.
From October 1, 2013 to October 10, 2017, the Shock Trauma Air Rescue Society administered blood to 431 patients. Of this total, 62.9% received blood carried on our aircraft. A total of 463 blood box units were administered, and the majority of patients (69.0%) received both units. Blood used in Calgary, Alberta was 100% traceable, and only 1.2% of total units dispensed was wasted. The vast majority of unused units were returned to circulation.
We describe the process to set up and monitor a prehospital blood transfusion program. Our standard work and stewardship processes minimize wastage of blood while keeping it readily available for our critically ill and injured patients.
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