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Although hypnosis has played a part in psychotherapy for a long time, it is not yet seen as an evidence-based therapy and is absent from many practice guidelines when it comes to the treatment of psychiatric disorders. At present, the applications and methods of hypnotherapy are poorly understood and other methods of psychotherapy tend to be favoured. This review article aims to introduce the role of hypnotherapy and its application for certain common psychiatric presentations, as well as examine its efficacy by summarising recent evidence from high-quality outcome studies and meta-analyses.
In inertial confinement fusion experiments that involve short-laser pulses such as fast ignition (FI), diagnosis of neutrons is usually very challenging because high-intensity γ rays generated by short-laser pulses would mask the much weaker neutron signal. In this paper, fast-response scintillators with low afterglow and gated microchannel plate photomultiplier tubes are combined to build neutron time-of-flight (nTOF) spectrometers for such experiments. Direct-drive implosion experiments of deuterium-gas-filled capsules were performed at the Shenguang-II Upgrade (SG-II-UP) laser facility to study the compressed fuel areal density (〈ρR〉) and evaluate the performance of such nTOF diagnostics. Two newly developed quenched liquid scintillator detectors and a gated ultrafast plastic scintillator detector were used to measure the secondary DT neutrons and primary DD neutrons, respectively. The secondary neutron signals were clearly discriminated from the γ rays from (n, γ) reactions, and the compressed fuel areal density obtained with the yield-ratio method agrees well with the simulations. Additionally, a small scintillator decay tail and a clear DD neutron signal were observed in an integrated FI experiment as a result of the low afterglow of the oxygen-quenched liquid scintillator.
The laser-driven acceleration of proton beams from a double-layer cone target, comprised of a cone shaped high-Z material target with a low density proton layer, is investigated via two-dimensional fully relativistic electro-magnetic particle-in-cell simulations. The dependence of the inside diameter (ID) of the tip size of a double-layer cone target on proton beam characteristics is demonstrated. Our results show that the peak energy of proton beams significantly increases and the divergence angle decreases with decreasing ID size. This can be explained by the combined effects of a stronger laser field that is focused inside the cone target and a larger laser interaction area by reducing the ID size.
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