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Pregnancy is a complex biological process. The establishment and maintenance of foetal–maternal interface are pivotal events. Decidual immune cells and inflammatory cytokines play indispensable roles in the foetal–maternal interface. The disfunction of decidual immune cells leads to adverse pregnancy outcome. Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, a common inflammatory cytokine, has critical roles in different stages of normal pregnancy process. However, the relationship between the disorder of TNF-α and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including preeclampsia (PE), intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), spontaneous abortion (SA), preterm birth and so on, is still indefinite. In this review, we thoroughly reviewed the effect of TNF-α disorder on pathological conditions. Moreover, we summarized the reports about the adverse pregnancy outcomes (PE, IUGR, SA and preterm birth) of using anti-TNF-α drugs (infliximab, etanercept and adalimumab, certolizumab and golimumab) currently in the clinical studies. Overall, IUGR, SA and preterm birth are the most common adverse pregnancy outcomes of anti-TNF-α drugs. Our review may provide insight for the immunological treatment of pregnancy-related complication, and help practitioners make informed decisions based on the current evidences.
Zn1−xMnxS nanoparticles with x = 0.08, 0.16, and 0.32 were synthesized by a coprecipitation reaction between nitrate and sodium sulfide at room temperature in air. The magnetic properties of the Zn1−xMnxS nanoparticles were investigated by alternating-current (ac) susceptibility and direct-current (dc) magnetization measurements. The Mn3O4 phase was observed to exist in the Zn1−xMnxS nanoparticles as x ⩾ 0.16. The actual concentrations (x) of Mn-doped ZnS nanoparticles were determined by energy-dispersive x-ray analysis (EDAX) to be 0.06, 0.11, and 0.20, respectively, corresponding to the initial concentrations x = 0.08, 0.16, and 0.32. All the nanoparticles had the cubic structure and the lattice constant of Zn1−xMnxS phase increased with increasing Mn dopant concentration. For the Zn0.68Mn0.32S nanoparticles, there was evidence for appearance of cluster spin-glasslike behavior, as indicated by two maxima around 15 and 25 K in temperature dependence of ac susceptibility. The frequency independence of the peak at higher temperature is related to the intracluster ferromagnetic (FM) interactions, and the frequency dependence of the peak at lower temperature is associated with the spin glass. All the results revealed that the concentration of Mn2+ in Mn–ZnS and the amount of Mn3O4 were crucial for the cluster spin-glass behavior, which was not found when the real concentration (x) was unequal to 0.20 in Zn1−xMnxS.
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