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A foodborne outbreak related to milk cartons served in school lunches occurred in June 2021, which involved more than 1,800 cases from 25 schools. The major symptoms were abdominal pain, diarrhoea, vomiting, and fever. Although major foodborne toxins and pathogens were not detected, a specific Escherichia coli strain, serotype OUT (OgGp9):H18, was predominantly isolated from milk samples related to the outbreak and most patients tested. The strains from milk and patient stool samples were identified as the same clone by core genome multilocus sequence typing and single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis. The strain was detected in milk samples served for two days related to the foodborne outbreak at a rate of 69.6% and levels of less than ten most probable number/100 mL but not on days unrelated to the outbreak. The acid tolerance of the strain for survival in the stomach was similar to that of enterohaemorrhagic E. coli O157:H7, and the same inserts in the chu gene cluster in the acid fitness island were genetically revealed. The pathogenicity of the strain was not clear; however, it was indicated that the causative pathogen was atypical diarrhoeagenic E. coli OUT (OgGp9):H18.
To examine the relationship between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and tap test response to elucidate the effects of comorbidity of AD in idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH).
Osaka University Hospital.
Patients with possible iNPH underwent a CSF tap test.
Concentrations of amyloid beta (Aβ) 1–40, 1–42, and total tau in CSF were measured. The response of tap test was judged using Timed Up and Go test (TUG), 10-m reciprocation walking test (10MWT), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and iNPH grading scale. The ratio of Aβ1–42 to Aβ1–40 (Aβ42/40 ratio) and total tau concentration was compared between tap test-negative (iNPH-nTT) and -positive (iNPH-pTT) patients.
We identified 27 patients as iNPH-nTT and 81 as iNPH-pTT. Aβ42/40 ratio was significantly lower (mean [SD] = 0.063 [0.026] vs. 0.083 [0.036], p = 0.008), and total tau in CSF was significantly higher (mean [SD] = 385.6 [237.2] vs. 293.6 [165.0], p = 0.028) in iNPH-nTT than in iNPH-pTT. Stepwise logistic regression analysis revealed that low Aβ42/40 ratio was significantly associated with the negativity of the tap test. The response of cognition was significantly related to Aβ42/40 ratio. The association between Aβ42/40 ratio and tap test response, especially in cognition, remained after adjusting for disease duration and severity at baseline.
A low CSF Aβ42/40 ratio is associated with a poorer cognitive response, but not gait and urinary response, to a tap test in iNPH. Even if CSF biomarkers suggest AD comorbidity, treatment with iNPH may be effective for gait and urinary dysfunction.