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Underground Nuclear Astrophysics in China (JUNA) will take the advantage of the ultra-low background in Jinping underground lab. High current accelerator with an ECR source and detectors were commissioned. JUNA plans to study directly a number of nuclear reactions important to hydrostatic stellar evolution at their relevant stellar energies. At the first period, JUNA aims at the direct measurements of 25Mg(p,γ)26 Al, 19F(p,α) 16 O, 13C(α, n) 16O and 12C(α,γ) 16O near the Gamow window. The current progress of JUNA will be given.
The long-term outcome of never-treated patients with schizophrenia is
To compare the 14-year outcomes of never-treated and treated patients
with schizophrenia and to establish predictors for never being
All participants with schizophrenia (n = 510) in Xinjin,
Chengdu, China were identified in an epidemiological investigation of 123
572 people and followed up from 1994 to 2008.
The results showed that there were 30.6%, 25.0% and 20.4% of patients who
received no antipsychotic medication in 1994, 2004 and 2008 respectively.
Compared with treated patients, those who were never treated in 2008 were
significantly older, had significantly fewer family members, had higher
rates of homelessness, death from other causes, being unmarried, living
alone, being without a caregiver and poor family attitudes. Partial and
complete remission in treated patients (57.3%) was significantly higher
than that in the never-treated group (29.8%). Predictors of being in the
never-treated group in 2008 encompassed baseline never-treated status,
being without a caregiver and poor mental health status in 1994.
Many patients with schizophrenia still do not receive antipsychotic
medication in rural areas of China. The 14-year follow-up showed that
outcomes for the untreated group were worse. Community-based mental
healthcare, health insurance and family intervention are crucial for
earlier diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation in the community.
Numerical simulation of two-phase flow in fractured karst reservoirs is still a challenging issue. The triple-porosity model is the major approach up to now. However, the triple-continuum assumption in this model is unacceptable for many cases. In the present work, an efficient numerical model has been developed for immiscible two-phase flow in fractured karst reservoirs based on the idea of equivalent continuum representation. First, based on the discrete fracture-vug model and homogenization theory, the effective absolute permeability tensors for each grid blocks are calculated. And then an analytical procedure to obtain a pseudo relative permeability curves for a grid block containing fractures and cavities has been successfully implemented. Next, a full-tensor simulator has been designed based on a hybrid numerical method (combining mixed finite element method and finite volume method). A simple fracture system has been used to demonstrate the validity of our method. At last, we have used the fracture and cavity statistics data from TAHE outcrops in west China, effective permeability values and other parameters from our code, and an equivalent continuum simulator to calculate the water flooding profiles for more realistic systems.
Accumulated evidence suggests that social support is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. However, there are little data that examine this issue from Asian samples. We reported results from a preliminary study that examined familial effects on social support in a Chinese adult twin sample. We administered a 10-item social support instrument that measures three dimensions of social support (i.e., objective support, subjective support, and utilization of support) developed for the Chinese population. Two hundred forty-two same-sex twin pairs, where both members of the pair completed the personal interview, were included in the final analysis. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate additive genetic (A), shared environmental (C), and nonshared environmental (E) effects on each dimension of social support. Familial factors (A+C) explained 56.63% [95% CI = 45.48–65.72%] and 42.42% [95% CI = 29.93–53.25%] of the total phenotypic variances of subjective support and utilization of support, respectively. For the objective support, genetic effects did not exist, but common environmental effect explained 37.56% [95% CI = 26.17–48.28%] of the total phenotypic variances. Neither gender nor age effects were seen on any dimension of social support. Except for objective support, genetic factors probably influence variation in subjective support and utilization of support. Shared environmental factors may influence all dimensions of social support.
A large area carbon nanotube cathode was fabricated by use of a screen printing method. The emission properties of the cathode were investigated in both direct current and pulse mode experiments. In the direct current mode, the cathode has high field enhancement factor and high emission current density. In the double-pulse mode, the emission current density can approach 267 A/cm2 at an applied electric field of 15.4 V/um. Steady intense electron beams were obtained from the cathode. The results proved that the emission mechanism of CNTs at pulse electric field is plasma-induced field emission. The carbon nanotube cathode is suitable for not only field emission display applications but also high-power microwave device applications.
Background. This is the first study to examine variation across cohorts in lifetime risk of DSM-IV mental disorders in metropolitan China.
Method. Face-to-face household interviews of 2633 adults in Beijing and 2568 adults in Shanghai were conducted from November 2001 to February 2002 using a multi-stage household probability sampling method. The Chinese World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative version of the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI) was used for assessment.
Results. Lifetime prevalence of any disorder was 13·2%. Alcohol abuse (4·7%), major depressive disorder (3·5%), and specific phobia (2·6%) were the most common disorders. The median age of onset was later for mood (43 years) than anxiety (17 years) and substance use (25 years) disorders. Compared to observed lifetime prevalence, the projected lifetime risk as of age 75 years increased by 106% for major depressive disorder (7·2%), and was uniformly higher for all disorders. Relative odds of any lifetime disorder were 4·7 in the most recent cohorts (ages 18–34) compared to the eldest cohorts (ages [ges ]65).
Conclusions. The findings of this cross-sectional study tally with the view that rapid socioeconomic changes may bring about increasing incidence of mental disorders in China. However, prospective longitudinal studies are needed to confirm if the increase is real. Because of the huge size of the Chinese population, any increase in projected lifetime risk of mental disorders represents an enormous increase in the number of affected individuals.
Background. Psychiatric epidemiological surveys in China have repeatedly found much lower prevalence estimates than in most other parts of the world.
Method. Face-to-face household interviews of 5201 subjects (2633 in Beijing and 2568 in Shanghai respectively) were conducted from November 2001 to February 2002 using a multistage household probability sampling method. A Chinese version of the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was used for assessment.
Results. Twelve-month prevalence of any DSM-IV mental disorder in metropolitan China is estimated to be 7·0%, with major depressive disorder (2·0%), specific phobia (1·9%), and intermittent explosive disorder (1·7%) the most common disorders. Of these, 13·9% are classified as serious, 32·6% moderate, and 53·5% mild. Only 3·4% of respondents with any disorder sought treatment within the previous 12 months.
Conclusions. Although the general pattern of disorders, risk factors, and unmet need for treatment are similar to those in other countries, a low prevalence of mental disorders is found in metropolitan China. Resolving methodological problems that cause downward bias in estimates, such as stigma-related under-reporting and diagnostic incongruity with a somatopsychic mode of symptom presentation may lead to more accurate and probably higher prevalence estimates in future epidemiological studies. As a low prevalence still translates into an enormous number of people in China, measures are urgently needed to address the huge unmet need for treatment of mental disorders.
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