Emergency evacuation during disasters may have significant health impacts on vulnerable populations. The Japanese Government issued evacuation orders for surrounding residents of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) immediately after the March 11, 2011, nuclear accident. Little is known of difficulties associated with the disaster-specific evacuation from health care facilities located in this area. Among the 338 patients hospitalized at Futaba Hospital, located 4.6 km west of FDNPP, at the time of the accident, 39 patients (11.5%), predominantly critically ill patients who were bedridden or disabled, died before the evacuation was completed. The shortage of hospital staff and disruption of infrastructure resulted in a lack of adequate care provision, such as infusion therapy or sputum suctioning, leading to premature death of some hospitalized patients during the emergency hospital evacuation. As hospital evacuation is sometimes unavoidable during disasters, potential health impacts of hospital evacuation should be recognized and reflected in disaster preparedness plans.