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In 2008 January the 24th Chinese expedition team successfully deployed the Chinese Small Telescope ARray (CSTAR) to Dome A, the highest point on the Antarctic plateau. CSTAR consists of four 14.5cm optical telescopes, each with a different filter (g, r, i and open) and has a 4.5°×4.5° field of view (FOV). Based on the CSTAR data, initial statistics of astronomical observational site quality and light curves of variable objects were obtained. To reach higher photometric quality, we are continuing to work to overcome the effects of uneven cirrus cloud cirrus, optical “ghosts” and intra-pixel sensitivity. The snow surface stability is also tested for further astronomical observational instrument and for glaciology studies.
Before 1950 there are two observatories, Shanghai and Purple Mountain Astronomical Observatories (SHAO and PMO), and two observing stations, Qingdao and Kunming stations in China. With the requirements of astronomical research, two observatories, Beijing and Shaanxi Astronomical Observatories (BAO and SXAO) and two artificial satellite stations, Urumqi and Changchun, were established about 1960. Based on the current management, now there are 4 observatories, SHAO, PMO, NAOC(National Astronomical Observatories), which was grouped from BAO, YNAO and 2 others, as well as XAO (Xinjiang Astronomical Observatory). The optical 1-2 m class telescopes are being operated at former four observatories. SXAO is changed as National Time Service Center. Because of city expansion as well as the traveling and economic developments, these observatories are suffered severe light pollution. For example, Zo Ce is located at the suburb of Shanghai city. A 40 cm double astrograph was installed in 1900 and a 1.56 m optical reflector have been operated since November 1987. In 1994 the seeing is better than 1 and the night sky brightness in V is about 19 mag/arcsec2, stars fainter than 20 mag with CCD are visibles. In 2007 a large playground was built in Zô Cè area. The light pollution is severe gradually. The night sky brightness has been increased to 15.8 mag/arcsec2. The other observatories have similar situation. New site surveys and found new stations to solve the problem. Except the solar and radio stations of each Astronomical Observatory, now there are 3 optical observing sites at PMO (Hong-He, Xu-Yi and Yaoan), 2 at SHAO (Zô Cè and Tian Huang Ping) and 2 at YNAO (Kunming and Gao-Mei-Gu) as well as 1 optical observing site at BAO (Xing-Long). The best observing site is Gao-Mei-Gu, which is selected as the optical observing site of YNAO and where atmospheric turbulence distribution is 0.11 near ground with heights from 6.5m to 2.7m during night. Sky brightness in B and V band are 22.34 and 21.54. The extinction coefficient K,bv and K,v are 0.298 and 0.135. The seeing measurement is 0.72’,. In the recent years a new 2.4m telescope the second largest telescope in China, was installed there.
Jets and outflows are typical manifestations of the stellar mass loss process during the early stage of star formation. Optical and near-infrared (NIR) imaging of jets and outflows has become extremely popular recently, especially concerning large-scale surveys of Herbig-Haro (HH) objects, NIR imaging of jets and outflows driven by both low- and high-mass stars, and detailed imaging of jets and bow shocks at sub-arcsec resolution.
Optical and IR observations of jets and outflows have revealed (1) cavities evacuated by the outflow motion; (2) bow shocks inside and near the surface of the jets and outflows; (3) exciting sources; (4) circumstellar disks responsible for collimating the jets and outflows; (5) sometimes a cluster instead of a single source from which the jets and outflows initiate; (6) bursts of jets and outflows in some regions. Large-scale surveys of HH objects and outflows have been done in a number of nearby regions including Taurus, Orion, and Perseus. The prominent results of these studies range from the discovery of parsec-scale jets and outflows to their large-scale distribution. These studies also begin to reveal the relation between outflow activity and the large-scale distribution of young stellar objects.
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