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Social functioning is crucial for daily living and is an essential indicator of dementia in patients with Parkinson's disease. The pattern of social functioning in patients with Parkinson's disease without dementia (i.e. those who are cognitively intact or have mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI)) and its determinants are unclear.
In exploring the heterogeneity of social functioning among patients with Parkinson's disease-associated dementia, we determined the optimal cut-off score of the Parkinson's Disease Social Functioning Scale (PDSFS) for patients with PD-MCI, and the variables influencing patients’ social functioning.
A total of 302 participants underwent the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and PDSFS; 120 patients with Parkinson's disease completed the measurements (MMSE, Activities of Daily Living Scale and Neuropsychiatric Inventory). Group comparisons, receiver operating characteristic curves, Spearman correlation and multiple and hierarchical regression analyses were conducted.
The PD-MCI group scored the lowest on the PDSFS (F = 10.10, P < 0.001). The PDSFS cut-off score was 53 (area under the curve 0.700, sensitivity 0.800, specificity 0.534). The MMSE (β = 0.293, P = 0.002), Activities of Daily Living Scale (β = 0.189, P = 0.028) and Neuropsychiatric Inventory (β = −0.216, P = 0.005) scores predicted the PDSFS score. Further, there was an interaction effect between the Activities of Daily Living Scale and Neuropsychiatric Inventory scores on the PDSFS score (β = 0.305, P < 0.001).
We determined a PDSFS cut-off score for detecting PD-MCI and found that patients with PD-MCI have social dysfunction. Future research should focus on the effects of neuropsychiatry symptoms and activities of daily living on social functioning, and tailor the intervention programme for patients with Parkinson's disease.
We studied the intraspecific interactions among oophagous Chirixalus eiffingeri tadpoles that occupied the same water-filled bamboo stumps at Chitou, Taiwan. We monitored the growth of newly-hatched tadpoles in unoccupied and occupied bamboo stumps in the field where the latter contained large tadpoles that hatched from earlier clutches. The growth of the small, late-hatching tadpoles in occupied nests was suppressed by the presence of large, early-hatching tadpoles. However, small tadpoles that were physically separated from large tadpoles in a perforated container grew at about the same rate as small tadpoles living in pools without large tadpoles. Thus, the slower growth of the late-hatching tadpoles was probably caused by behavioural interference competition with the early-hatching tadpoles. In the laboratory, we kept large and small tadpoles together in containers and did not feed them for 6 days. The large tadpoles did not cannibalize the small tadpoles. Although large tadpoles may scavenge dead tadpoles, the effects of scavenging on growth were negligible. Interactions among cohabiting C. eiffingeri tadpoles are similar to those among the oophagous tadpoles of several hylid species that use phytotelmata. Results suggest that behavioural interference competition is the principal type of intraspecific interactions among the oophagous, non-predatory tadpoles of hylid and rhacophorid frogs.
The main range of the cherry salmon Oncorhynchus masou is the Sea of Japan and adjacent areas, with most populations migrating to spawn in streams in Korea, Japan, the Kuril Islands and the south-west tip of Kamchatka. Landlocked forms of the cherry salmon also occur, among them a relict population in the mountains of Taiwan. This population has declined in recent years and efforts are being made to save it.
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