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Copy number variation (CNV) is a very common type of gene variation with high frequency. In recent years, CNV has been paid more attention in various fields, especially in livestock and poultry breeding, which has promoted the progress of breeding. WW domain binding protein 1-like (WBP1L) is a protein coding gene, which plays an important role in cattle populations, and its function has been extensively studied, but it is not clear whether the copy number of the gene can affect the growth and development of cattle populations. In this study, CNV of WBP1L gene was detected in 732 cattle of seven breeds (Qinchuan cattle, QC; Pinan cattle, PN; Yuengling cattle, YL; Xianan cattle, XN; Jiaxian cattle, JX; natural Guyuan cattle, NGY; Jian cattle, JA). In addition, the relationship between CNV and growth phenotype of cattle was studied. The experimental data indicate that the copy number of WBP1L was obviously correlated with heart girth of PN cattle (**P < 0.01), rump length (RL) and body weight (BW) of PN cattle (*P < 0.05), withers height (WH), RL, body length, chest depth and BW of JX cattle (*P < 0.05), WH of NGY cattle (*P < 0.05) and WH of JA cattle (*P < 0.05). It was proved that CNV of WBP1L gene could be used as molecular marker locus for genetic breeding of the above four cattle breeds.
A numerical procedure for the evaluation of equivalent permeability tensor for fractured vuggy porous media is presented. At first we proposed a new conceptual model, i.e., discrete fracture-vug network model, to model the realistic fluid flow in fractured vuggy porous medium on fine scale. This new model consists of three systems: rock matrix system, fractures system, and vugs system. The fractures and vugs are embedded in porous rock, and the isolated vugs could be connected via discrete fracture network. The flow in porous rock and fractures follows Darcy’s law, and the vugs system is free fluid region. Based on two-scale homogenization theory, we obtained an equivalent macroscopic Darcy’s law on coarse scale from fine-scale discrete fracture-vug network model. A finite element numerical formulation for homogenization equations is developed. The method is verified through application to a periodic model problem and then is applied to the calculation of equivalent permeability tensor of porous media with complex fracture-vug networks. The applicability and validity of the method for these more general fractured vuggy systems are assessed through a simple test of the coarse-scale model.
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