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Childhood is a critical period for muscle accumulation. Studies in elders have reported that antioxidant vitamins could improve muscle health. However, limited studies have assessed such associations in children. This study included 243 boys and 183 girls. A seventy-nine-item FFQ was used to investigate dietary nutrients intake. Plasma levels of retinol and α-tocopherol were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography with MS. Dual X-ray absorptiometry was used to assess appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) and total body fat. The ASM index (ASMI) and ASMI Z-score were then calculated. Hand grip strength was measured using a Jamar® Plus+ Hand Dynamometer. Fully adjusted multiple linear regression models showed that for each unit increase in plasma retinol content, ASM, ASMI, left HGS and ASMI Z-score increased by 2·43 × 10−3 kg, 1·33 × 10−3 kg/m2, 3·72 × 10−3 kg and 2·45 × 10−3 in girls, respectively (P < 0·001–0·050). ANCOVA revealed a dose–response relationship between tertiles of plasma retinol level and muscle indicators (Ptrend: 0·001–0·007). The percentage differences between the top and bottom tertiles were 8·38 %, 6·26 %, 13·2 %, 12·1 % and 116 % for ASM, ASMI, left HGS, right HGS and ASMI Z-score in girls, respectively (Pdiff: 0·005–0·020). No such associations were observed in boys. Plasma α-tocopherol levels were not correlated with muscle indicators in either sex. In conclusion, high circulating retinol levels are positively associated with muscle mass and strength in school-age girls.
In strong-field physics experiments with ultraintense lasers, a single-shot cross-correlator (SSCC) is essential for fast optimization of the pulse contrast and meaningful comparison with theory for each pulse shot. To simultaneously characterize an ultrashort pulse and its long pedestal, the SSCC device must have both a high resolution and a large temporal window. However, the resolution and window in all kinds of single-shot measurement contradict each other in principle. Here we propose and demonstrate a novel SSCC device with two separate measurement channels: channel-1 for the large-window pedestal measurement has a moderate resolution but a large window, while channel-2 for the ultrashort pulse measurement has a small window but a high resolution; this allows the accurate characterization of the pulse contrast in a single shot. A two-channel SSCC device with a 200-fs resolution and 114-ps window has been developed and tested for its application in ultraintense lasers at 800 nm.
Seasonal energy intake of Tibetan sheep on the harsh Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) fluctuates greatly and is often well below maintenance requirements. The aim of this study was to gain insight into how the hypothalamus regulates energy homoeostasis in Tibetan sheep. We compared Tibetan and Small-tailed Han sheep (n 24 of each breed), which were each allocated randomly into four groups and offered one of four diets that differed in digestible energy densities: 8·21, 9·33, 10·45 and 11·57 MJ/kg DM. Sheep were weighed every 2 weeks, and it was assumed that the change in body weight (BW) reflected the change in energy balance. The arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus in Tibetan sheep had greater protein expressions of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related peptide (AgRP) when in negative energy balance, but lesser protein expressions of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) when in positive energy balance than Small-tailed Han sheep. As a result, Tibetan sheep had a lesser BW loss when in negative energy balance and stored more energy and gained more BW when in positive energy balance than Small-tailed Han sheep with the same dietary intake. Moreover, in the hypothalamic adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) regulation pathway, Tibetan sheep had greater adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase-α 2 protein expression than Small-tailed Han sheep, which supported the premise of a better ability to regulate energy homoeostasis and better growth performance. These differences in the hypothalamic NPY/AgRP, POMC/CART and AMPK pathways between breeds conferred an advantage to the Tibetan over Small-tailed Han sheep to cope with low energy intake on the harsh QTP.
This study aimed to gain insight into how adipose tissue of Tibetan sheep regulates energy homoeostasis to cope with low energy intake under the harsh environment of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). We compared Tibetan and Small-tailed Han sheep (n 24 of each breed), all wethers and 1·5 years of age, which were each divided randomly into four groups and offered diets of different digestible energy (DE) densities: 8·21, 9·33, 10·45 and 11·57 MJ DE/kg DM. When the sheep lost body mass and were assumed to be in negative energy balance: (1) adipocyte diameter in subcutaneous adipose tissue was smaller and decreased to a greater extent in Tibetan than in Small-tailed Han sheep, but the opposite occurred in the visceral adipose tissue; (2) Tibetan sheep showed higher insulin receptor mRNA expression and lower concentrations of catabolic hormones than Small-tailed Han sheep and (3) Tibetan sheep had lower capacity for glucose and fatty acid uptake than Small-tailed Han sheep. Moreover, Tibetan sheep had lower AMPKα mRNA expression but higher mammalian target of rapamycin mRNA expression in the adipocytes than Small-tailed Han sheep. We concluded that Tibetan sheep had lower catabolism but higher anabolism in adipose tissue and reduced the capacity for glucose and fatty acid uptake to a greater extent than Small-tailed Han sheep to maintain energy homoeostasis when in negative energy balance. These responses provide Tibetan sheep with a high ability to cope with low energy intake and with the harsh environment of the QTP.
The nutritional intake of Tibetan sheep on the harsh Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau is often under maintenance requirements, especially during the long, cold winter. However, they have adapted well and even thrive under these conditions. The aim of the present study was to gain insight into how the rumen epithelium of Tibetan sheep has adapted to the consumption of low-energy-level diets. For this purpose, we compared Tibetan and small-tailed Han sheep (n 24 of each breed, all wethers and 1·5 years of age), which were divided randomly into one of four groups and offered ad libitum diets of different digestible energy (DE) densities: 8·21, 9·33, 10·45 and 11·57 MJ DE/kg DM. The Tibetan sheep had higher rumen concentrations of total SCFA, acetate, butyrate and iso-acids but lower concentrations of propionate than small-tailed Han sheep. The Tibetan sheep had higher absorption capability of SCFA due to the greater absorption surface area and higher mRNA expression of the SCFA absorption relative genes than small-tailed Han sheep. For the metabolism of SCFA in the rumen epithelium, the small-tailed Han sheep showed higher utilisation of the ketogenesis pathway than Tibetan sheep; however, Tibetan sheep had greater regulation capacity in SCFA metabolism pathways. These differences between breeds allowed the Tibetan sheep to have greater capability of absorbing SCFA and better capacity to regulate the metabolism of SCFA, which would allow them to cope with low energy intake better than small-tailed Han sheep.
Basal deformation was studied in tunnel 2 in the east tributary of Ürümqi Glacier No. 1, Tien Shan mountains. Beneath the tunnel there is an ice-laden till layer, about 11 m thick and at a sub-freezing temperature. This layer is deformable and provides a significant part of the overall surface motion. The basal velocity in the tunnel gradually decreases from the back wall towards the entrance, with a compressive strain rate ranging from −0.579 to −5.739 × 10−2 a−1. The inclination of the principal strain rate to the horizontal gradually decreases from the back wall towards the tunnel entrance. The study provides data on the longitudinal compression and vertical uplift in the basal ice and ice-laden till layer resulting from interaction of glacier with recently exposed proglacial deposits.
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