Fibrous media in the form of nonwoven filters have been used extensively in water treatment as pre-filters or to support the medium that does the separation. Nonwoven media are composed of randomly oriented micron-size fibers and provide a one step separation as a substitute for conventional processes comprising chemical addition, flocculation, sedimentation, and sand filtration. At present the use of nonwoven filter media is limited to pre-filters and is not used further downstream as high performance filters. However it is expected that by reducing the fiber size in the nanometer range, higher filtration efficiency can be achieved. With the advent of nanotechnology, the ease of producing high quality nano scaled fibers is now a reality. Recent advancements in nanofibrous media through surface modifications have shown that nonwoven media can be used beyond the prefilter stage. Furthermore the pore size of the filter media can be controlled through modification of fiber size and thickness of membranes. These nanofibrous membranes possess high surface area and large porosity leading to high flux, low pressure membranes. This article highlights important opportunities and challenges associated with developing nanofibrous media for water treatment. In addition, we have attempted to capture a snapshot of this rapidly developing new area of fibrous media for water treatment for the benefit of the wider membrane community.