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Several studies on the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are being conducted, and various drugs are being tried; however, the results have not been uniform. Steroids have been widely used in the treatment of COVID-19, but their effects are controversial. As immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory agents, steroids are considered to reduce lung damage by regulating various inflammatory responses. We report a case of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 pneumonia manifesting as a cryptogenic organizing pneumonia-like reaction and discuss its treatment, clinical course, and favorable outcomes after steroid administration.
The effect of a surface trip wire on the flow around a sphere is experimentally investigated at subcritical Reynolds numbers of Re = 0.5 × 105 – 2.8 × 105 based on the free-stream velocity U∞ and sphere diameter d. By varying the streamwise location (20° – 70° from the stagnation point) and diameter (0.33 × 10−2 < k/d < 1.33 × 10−2) of a trip wire, we measure the drag, surface pressure distribution and boundary layer velocity profiles above the sphere surface, and conduct flow visualization. Depending on the size and streamwise location of the trip wire, three different flow characteristics are observed above the sphere surface. For low Reynolds numbers, the disturbance induced by the trip wire decays downstream and main separation occurs at a streamwise location similar to that of a smooth sphere. As the Reynolds number is increased, laminar separation is delayed farther downstream by the disturbance from the trip wire and the transition to turbulence occurs along the separated shear layer, resulting in the flow reattachment to the sphere surface and thus forming a secondary separation bubble on the sphere surface. Then, the main separation is delayed due to high momentum near the surface and the drag is significantly reduced. When the trip wire produces even larger disturbances through the separation and reattachment right at the trip-wire location for higher Reynolds numbers, the boundary layer flow becomes turbulent soon after the trip-wire location and the main separation is delayed, resulting in drag reduction.
In this investigation, 22 cloned male piglets were obtained by male fetal fibroblast-cell-derived nuclear transfer. Eighteen of the cloned animals died. The two cell lines did not differ significantly with regard to efficiency of live piglet production. The gross anatomy of the testes of male piglets that died was normal. However, one piglet displayed Leydig cell hypoplasia (LCH). No anatomical defects were detected in the testes of other cloned male piglets. TUNEL analysis of the testis with LCH revealed significant apoptosis in the Leydig cells, while apoptosis was rarely detected in Sertoli cells and spermatogonia. In contrast, testes from the remaining 17 piglets that died appeared normal in size, and their Sertoli and Leydig cell numbers were comparable to those in control piglet testes. Although cloned piglets were derived from fibroblasts obtained from the same fetus, phenotypic instability between cells used for the production of somatic cell cloned piglets suggests that abnormalities in male cloned piglets are caused not by technical problems and/or reprogramming effects, but rather by epigenetically and/or genetically damaged cell-specific effects.
In this paper, using a multidimensional Volkenborn integral, we give a p-adic expression of the higher order Bernoulli numbers. This shows immediately the relation to the sums of products of the ordinary Bernoulli numbers of Dilcher in 1996. We also consider the Mahler expansion of several p-adic variables function, and give some examples.
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