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Given the importance of angiostrongyliasis as an emerging infectious disease of humans, companion animals, and wildlife, the current study focused on the transmission dynamics of first- and third-stage larvae of the parasitic nematode, Angiostrongylus cantonensis. The migration of infective larvae and their subsequent distribution within the Lymnaeidae snail, Bullastra lessoni, were investigated over time using microscopic examination of histological sections and fresh tissue. Snails were divided into four anatomical regions: (i) anterior and (ii) posterior cephalopedal masses, (iii) mantle skirt and (iv) visceral mass. The viability of free-swimming third-stage larvae, after their release from snail tissues, was evaluated in vitro by propidium iodide staining and infectivity by in vivo infection of Wistar rats. Snails were sequentially dissected over time to assess the number and anatomical distribution of larvae within each snail and hence infer their migration pathway. Herein, ongoing larval migratory activity was detected over 28 days post-infection. A comparison of infection rates and the larval distribution within the four designated snail regions demonstrated a significant relationship between anatomical region and density of infective larvae, with larvae mostly distributed in the anterior cephalopedal mass (43.6 ± 10.8%) and the mantle skirt (33.0 ± 8.8%). Propidium iodide staining showed that free-swimming third-stage larvae retained viability for between 4 and 8 weeks when stored under laboratory conditions. In contrast to viability, larval infectivity in rats remained for up to 2 weeks only. Knowledge gained from the current work could provide information on the development of new approaches to controlling the transmission of this parasite.
Suspected nosocomial Aspergillus fumigatus infections in an Australian hematology unit were investigated by molecular typing of clinical and environmental isolates using polymerase chain reaction fingerprinting, CSP typing, and multilocus microsatellite typing. Only multilocus microsatellite typing revealed that all isolates were genetically distinct. The selection of an appropriate typing method is essential for effective outbreak investigations.
The new species Umbelopsis dimorpha sp. nov. was isolated from a soil sample in the Red Hills area of Mt Richmond Forest Park, in the northern part of the South Island of New Zealand. It has two kinds of pale pinkish sporangia: (1) single-spored, indistinguishable from those of U. versiformis; and (2) multi-spored, similar to those of U. vinacea. ITS sequences place the species in the immediate vicinity of the former species.
In a continuation of studies started by de Ruiter et al. (1993), all known species of the Mortierella isabellina-group (Micromucor/Umbelopsis clade of O'Donnell et al. 2001) and a few other Mucorales and species of Mortierella were investigated by RFLP (including ITS1, 5.8S, ITS 2 and the 5′ end of the large subunit rDNA gene) and ITS1 sequence analyses. This monophyletic group is unrelated to Mortierella and is only distantly related to the core group of the Mucoraceae. M. longicollis falls outside the Umbelopsis clade. Molecular data resolved two subclades within the M. isabellina-group; however, they are not correlated with any differences in sporangial wall and shape, spore pigmentation and shape, or sporangiophore branching. Therefore we subsume all taxa in one genus, Umbelopsis. The new family Umbelopsidaceae and the new combinations U. isabellina, U. ramanniana, and U. autotrophica are proposed.
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