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Despite previous studies, glacier–lake interactions and future lake development in the Poiqu River basin, central Himalaya, are still not well understood. We mapped glacial lakes, glaciers, their frontal positions and ice flow from optical remote sensing data, and calculated glacier surface elevation change from digital terrain models. During 1964–2017, the total glacial-lake area increased by ~110%. Glaciers retreated with an average rate of ~1.4 km2 a−1 between 1975 and 2015. Based on rapid area expansion (>150%), and information from previous studies, eight lakes were considered to be potentially dangerous glacial lakes. Corresponding lake-terminating glaciers showed an overall retreat of 6.0 ± 1.4 to 26.6 ± 1.1 m a−1 and accompanying lake expansion. The regional mean glacier elevation change was −0.39 ± 0.13 m a−1 while the glaciers associated with the eight potentially dangerous lakes lowered by −0.71 ± 0.05 m a−1 from 1974 to 2017. The mean ice flow speed of these glaciers was ~10 m a−1 from 2013 to 2017; about double the mean for the entire study area. Analysis of these data along with climate observations suggests that ice melting and calving processes play the dominant role in driving lake enlargement. Modelling of future lake development shows where new lakes might emerge and existing lakes could expand with projected glacial recession.
Remote sensing data, including those from Landsat Thematic Mapper/Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (TM/ETM +), the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission Digital Elevation Model (SRTM4.1 DEM), and the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite (Glas/ICESat), show that from 1991 to 2013 the glacier area in the Depuchangdake region of northwestern Tibet decreased from 409 to 393 km2, an overall loss of 16 km2, or 3.9% of the entire 1991 glacial area. The mean glacier-thinning rate was − 0.40 ± 0.16 m equivalent height of water per year (w.e./yr), equating to a glacier mass balance of − 0.16 ± 0.07 km3 w.e./yr. Total mass loss from 2003 to 2009 was − 1.13 ± 0.46 km3. Glacier retreat likely reflects increases in annual total radiation, annual positive degree days, and maximum temperature, with concurrent increases in precipitation insufficient to replenish glacial mass loss. The rate of glacier retreat in Depuchangdake is less than that for Himalayan glaciers in Indian monsoon-dominated areas, but greater than that for Karakoram glaciers in mid-latitude westerly-dominated areas. Glacier type, climate zone, and climate change all impact on the differing degrees of long-term regional glacial change rate; however, special glacier distribution forms can sometimes lead to exceptional circumstances.
Remote-sensing and GIS techniques in conjunction with field investigations show how glacier mass loss has led to the rapid growth of Linggo Co, a glacier-fed lake on the central Tibetan Plateau, which has expanded by 21.3% in area between 1974 and 2010, with a lake-level rise of ˜11.2m. The lake volume of Linggo Co increased at a rate of 0.02 × 106, 42.67 × 106 and 65.8 × I06m3a-1 during the periods 1974-92, 1992-99 and 1999-2010, respectively. Other nonglacier-fed lakes in the vicinity (i.e. Longwei Co, Amur Co and Darngo Co Ngion) shrank considerably from the early 1970s to 1992 and then expanded from 1992 to 2010. Despite being in the same climate region, Linggo Co and the non-glacier-fed lakes have differed in response to climate change. The glaciers in the catchment of Linggo Co retreated by 2.4% in area between 1974 and 2007, and their mean thickness decreased by 6.19 ± 1.91 m between 1974 and 2000, with an associated glacier meltwater runoff of (7.52 ± 2.32) × 108 m3. The results indicate that glacier mass loss had a significant impact on the growth of Linggo Co over the past 40 years.
Catastrophic floods originating from glacial lake outbursts have recently become one of the primary natural hazards in the southeastern Tibetan Plateau. Here we report observations of glacial lake expansions and glacier recessions in the Boshula mountain range, southeast Tibet, derived from multitemporal remote-sensing images and digital elevation models during the period from the 1970s to 2009. The area of glacial lakes has expanded from 10.96 ± 0.1 km2 in the 1970s to 10.96±0.1km2 in 2009. Specifically, the area of moraine-dammed lakes has increased by 26.8%. From the 1970s to 2009, the glacierized area in the Boshula mountain range shrank by 12.7% (21.2 km2). Increasing mean summer air temperature was the main cause for the glacier recession and lake expansion from the 1970s to 2001, while the combination of increased summer temperature and decreased summer precipitation led to accelerated glacier recession after 2001. Climate warming and ongoing deglaciation play important roles in the expansion of moraine-dammed lakes, calling for intensified monitoring to properly address the hazard potential in the study area.
In pre-revolutionary China most disabled persons had no opportunity to receive education or obtain employment, and many of them experienced social discrimination. After the founding of the People's Republic, the government adopted a number of measures aimed at guaranteeing their livelihood. Efforts were made to give those who maintained the ability to work the opportunity to do so; those who were unable to work were provided with emergency relief or, if they had no family members who could support them, placed in orphanages, long-term psychiatric hospitals, and other types of welfare institution. Once the basic livelihood needs of the disabled were met, the next objective was to provide rehabilitative services. The evolution of these services has depended on three separate but related developments: the maturation of an organisational structure for the co-ordination of the services; the promulgation of laws that safeguard the rights and privileges of disabled persons; and the formation of academic societies of medical rehabilitation. This paper first considers these three developments and then examines how they have influenced the evolution of psychiatric rehabilitation in China.
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