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Designing new materials with well-defined structures and desired functions is a challenge in materials science, especially with nanomaterials. Nature, however, solves design of these materials through a self-assembling, hierarchically ordered process. We have investigated the mechanisms by which the high- aspect ratio and unique surface chemistry of M13 bacteriophage can give rise to increasingly complex, hierarchically ordered, bundled phage structures with a wide range of material applications. A molecular dynamic simulation of the 3-D structure of a 20-nm section of wild type (WT) and mutant phage types were developed based on WT phage crystal structure and ab initio calculations. Simulations of these phage were then used to examine repulsive and attractive forces of the particles in solution. Examination of contact interactions between two WT phage indicated the phage were maximally attracted to each other in a head to tail orientation. A mutant phage (4E) with a higher negative surface charge relative to WT phage also preferentially ordered head to tail in solution. In contrast, a mutant phage (CLP8) with a net positive surface charge had minimal repulsion in a 90° orientation. Understanding the self-assembly process through molecular dynamic simulations and decomposition of fundamental forces driving inter- and intra-strand interactions has provided a qualitative assessment of mechanisms that lead to hierarchical phage bundle structures. Results from simulation agree with experimentally observed patterns from self-assembly. We anticipate using this system to further investigate development of hierarchical structures not only from biological molecules but also from synthetic materials.
Before turning to the specifics of the English strategic conundrum, one must consider Irish and Spanish goals. Direct sources from the Gaelic leadership are few and far between, and it is difficult to say exactly what long-range goal they sought. Crucially, in offensive war directed against English territorial control, the Irish lacked an artillery train, a capability the Spanish could provide. The Spanish had a different and not always harmonious set of goals and problems. English wars in Ireland have been portrayed as precursors to Atlantic colonization, and as such they supposedly proceeded without concern for the local population. The Irish rebellion only became insurmountable if combined with Spanish conventional power. They therefore turned all of their resources first to destroying the Spanish, after which they assumed they could eventually handle the Irish rebels. To preserve English sovereignty, the Irish had to be kept down and the Spanish out.
The Working Group Archives deals with all aspects of the identification and preservation of astronomical archives. In 2009 the IAU will celebrate its 90th anniversary, and on this occasion the WG is taking action toward preserving the archival materials related with the history of IAU. An institution must keep memory of its own past and, as the centenary of IAU is approaching, for the 2006-2009 triennium the WG Archives has started evaluating the archival collections related to the establishment of IAU, in order to check their extent and the current conditions of preservation and conservation of such documents.
Antiviral prophylaxis is recommended for the control of institutional influenza A outbreaks. In long-term–care institutions other than nursing homes, neither the seriousness of influenza nor the risks and benefits of antiviral prophylaxis is clearly understood. We studied the severity of illness due to influenza among adults residing in a center for the developmentally disabled and assessed adverse reactions to amantadine and oseltamivir prophylaxis.
Data were collected from the charts of consenting residents. Complications of upper respiratory tract illness were recorded. Potential adverse events were documented during amantadine and oseltamivir therapy, and during a baseline period with neither medication.
The median age of the 287 participants was 46.4 years. Only 15 (5%) were older than 65 years, and 69 (24%) had chronic underlying medical illness placing them at high risk for influenza. Of the 122 residents with an upper respiratory tract infection, 16 (13%) developed pneumonia, 12 (9.8%) were hospitalized, and 5 (4%) died. Twenty-eight (25%) of 112 residents had an adverse neurologic event while receiving amantadine prophylaxis, compared with 3 (2.7%) receiving no antiviral medication and 5 (4.5%) receiving oseltamivir (P < .001). Sixteen percent of the residents discontinued amantadine due to adverse events; in contrast, adverse events were identified in 2.9% of the residents prescribed oseltamivir, and none discontinued therapy.
Viral respiratory tract infections are associated with a high risk of complications in this population. The rate of adverse neurologic events associated with amantadine was significantly higher than that associated with oseltamivir.
This review examines recent work on the ideology, culture, and socio-economic composition of early American militaries down to 1815. A fresh place has been given to the role of a Native American culture of war in influencing colonial warfare, although the exact nature of the synthesis of European and Indian traditions remains unclear. Social and economic investigations of the colonial militias and the Continental Army have revealed persistent patterns of expectations of contractual service and subsequent effective resistance when those conditions were not met. Taken together these works have brought us closer to a deeper understanding of the links between culture and military behaviour.
High temperature superconducting Y1Ba2Cu3O7−x(YBCO) thin films have been grown on GaAs substrates by in situ laser deposition with a double buffer layer of yttrium-stabilized ZrO2(YSZ)/Si3N4. A barrier layer using a combination of YSZ/Si3N4 was used to grow high quality YBCO thin films without the degradation of the GaAs during YBCO film deposition. Strongly c-axis oriented superconducting YBCO thin films with a zero resistance temperature of 85.5 K and a critical current density of 1.9×103 A/cm2 at 77 K have been obtained. The electrical properties of the YBCO thin films were mainly dependent on YSZ buffer layer deposition condition.
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