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OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Development of a user friendly home kit that enables kidney transplant recipients to process urine at home and post the lysate containing RNA to a Core Laboratory would simplify urinary cell mRNA profiling and facilitate longitudinal monitoring. We report our home processing protocol and investigation of its diagnostic performance characteristics. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We developed a home processing protocol (HPP) consisting of urine filtration and lysis of urinary cells, both performed at home by the kidney transplant recipients (KTR) themselves, followed by isolation of total RNA from the lysate and mRNA enrichment using a silica-membrane-based cartridge, both performed at the Core Laboratory. Using the HPP, total RNA was isolated from kidney allograft biopsy-matched urines and absolute copy numbers of CD3ÎµmRNA, CXCL10 mRNA, and 18S rRNA, components of the Clinical Trials in Organ Transplantation 04 (CTOT-04) three-gene TCMR diagnostic signature, and urinary cell BKV VP1 mRNA copy number, were measured using customized RT-qPCR assays. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: CTOT-04 three-gene TCMR diagnostic signature scores in urine processed using HPP discriminated KTR with TCMR (12 TCMR biopsies from 11 KTR) from KTR with no TCMR/BKVN (29 No TCMR/No BKVN biopsies from 29 KTR) (P=0.0005, Mann-Whitney test), and AUROC was 0.84 (95% CI, 0.69 to 0.98). TCMR was diagnosed with sensitivity of 67% (95% CI, 35 to 89) at a specificity of 86% (95% CI, 67 to 95) using the CTOT-04 validated cutpoint of -1.213 (P=0.0016,Fisher exact test). BKV VP1 mRNA copy number in urine processed with HPP discriminated KTR with BKVN (n=7) from KTR with no TCMR/BKVN (n=29) and AUROC was 1.0 (95% CI, 1.00 to 1.00). BKVN was diagnosed with a sensitivity of 86% (95% CI, 42 to 99) at specificity of 100% (95% CI, 85 to 100) with the previously validated cutpoint of 6.5x10^8 BKV VP1 mRNA copies/μg of RNA (P DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Urine processed using the HPP predicted TCMR and BKVN in KTR. The HPP represents not only a significant advance towards portability of urinary cell mRNA profiling but also should improve patient management by minimizing visits for urine collection.
Acceptance and willingness to pay for the COVID-19 vaccine are unknown.
We compared attitudes toward COVID-19 vaccination in people suffering from depression or anxiety disorder and people without mental disorders, and their willingness to pay for it.
Adults with depression or anxiety disorder (n = 79) and healthy controls (n = 134) living in Chongqing, China, completed a cross-sectional study between 13 and 26 January 2021. We used a validated survey to assess eight aspects related to attitudes toward the COVID-19 vaccines. Psychiatric symptoms were assessed by the 21-item Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale.
Seventy-six people with depression or anxiety disorder (96.2%) and 134 healthy controls (100%) reported willingness to receive the COVID-19 vaccine. A significantly higher proportion of people with depression or anxiety disorder (64.5%) were more willing to pay for the COVID-19 vaccine than healthy controls (38.1%) (P ≤ 0.001). After multivariate adjustment, severity of depression and anxiety was significantly associated with willingness to pay for COVID-19 vaccination among psychiatric patients (P = 0.048). Non-healthcare workers (P = 0.039), health insurance (P = 0.003), living with children (P = 0.006) and internalised stigma (P = 0.002) were significant factors associated with willingness to pay for COVID-19 vaccine in healthy controls.
To conclude, psychiatric patients in Chongqing, China, showed high acceptance and willingness to pay for the COVID-19 vaccine. Factors associated with willingness to pay for the COVID-19 vaccine differed between psychiatric patients and healthy controls.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to significant strain on front-line healthcare workers.
In this multicentre study, we compared the psychological outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic in various countries in the Asia-Pacific region and identified factors associated with adverse psychological outcomes.
From 29 April to 4 June 2020, the study recruited healthcare workers from major healthcare institutions in five countries in the Asia-Pacific region. A self-administrated survey that collected information on prior medical conditions, presence of symptoms, and scores on the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales and the Impact of Events Scale-Revised were used. The prevalence of depression, anxiety, stress and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) relating to COVID-19 was compared, and multivariable logistic regression identified independent factors associated with adverse psychological outcomes within each country.
A total of 1146 participants from India, Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia and Vietnam were studied. Despite having the lowest volume of cases, Vietnam displayed the highest prevalence of PTSD. In contrast, Singapore reported the highest case volume, but had a lower prevalence of depression and anxiety. In the multivariable analysis, we found that non-medically trained personnel, the presence of physical symptoms and presence of prior medical conditions were independent predictors across the participating countries.
This study highlights that the varied prevalence of psychological adversity among healthcare workers is independent of the burden of COVID-19 cases within each country. Early psychological interventions may be beneficial for the vulnerable groups of healthcare workers with presence of physical symptoms, prior medical conditions and those who are not medically trained.
The goal of this work is to study the properties of magnetically aligned CNT/PC nanocomposites towards the development of hydrogen gas separation membranes. A fraction (0.1 weight %) of synthesized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been dispersed homogeneously throughout polycarbonate (PC) matrix by ultrasonication. The alignment of CNT in PC matrix has been accomplished by applying an external magnetic field of 1200 Gauss. These nanocomposites have been studied by gas permeation using H2, N2 and Co2 electrical and dielectric constant measurements. Experimental results of gas permeability measurements exhibit here that H2 is more selective than N2 and Co2 in magnetically aligned nanocomposite membranes which can be used as good hydrogen separating media. I-V characteristics show the electron hopping like behavior and dielectric constant shows the enhancement in permittivity of these nanocomposites.
In South Asia, law and language are inextricably intertwined not only in the construction and consumption of sociolegal relationships and in the authorization of sociopolitical and individual actions but also in the creation of social structures, the nurturing and shaping of political ideologies, and the negotiation of social and individual identities. In order to have a comprehensive understanding of the role and function of language in legal systems, it is necessary to specify the complexity of interpretations of some of the terms and issues arising from this dynamic relationship, especially in the contexts of multilingual and multicultural contexts.
First, although legal systems are invariably influenced by religion and culture, they have an inseparable relationship with language, which is typically used as an instrument of legal expression, both in spoken and written forms. We are more familiar with the use of written language as a vehicle for the communication of legal content in modern times, but the use of speech in legal settings was common in ancient times. The ancient Indian legal systems provide good examples of such uses of speech in legal contexts. The legal system during the Vedic period created social norms to regulate human behavior, but there were no facilities to record these rules and regulations in the written form. The social code embodied in the Shruti was memorized and handed down from one generation to another.
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