Organic matter in the cultural layer of the ancient settlement Pesochnoe-1 near Lake Nero (NE of Moscow) yields reliable radiocarbon dates. The reason for this is the high concentrations of calcium and phosphorus in the cultural layer, especially in calcined bones. Several cultural epochs are distinguished in the cultural layer consisting of more or less homogeneous habitation deposits colored with humic susbstances. Artifacts of the Ljalovo culture are found in the lower part of the cultural layer; above these, artifacts of the Volosovo culture are present, and the upper part of the cultural layer corresponds to the Textile Ceramics culture. The 14C dates for humic substances in the layers show a good chronological stratification and correspond to known ages of these cultural stages. The 14C dates for the Ljalovo cultural layer cover 5600–5100 BP (4430–3900 cal BC), and dates for the Volosovo cultural layer span 4400–4200 BP (3000–2840 cal BC). Most dates from the upper part of the cultural layer correspond to the chronological interval of the Textile Ceramics culture and range from 3700 to 3200 BP (2100–1460 cal BC). More precise 14C dates were obtained for humic substances from archaeological objects in the upper cultural layer (hearths, fillings of pottery vessels, etc.): 3900–3500 BP (2100–1800 cal BC).