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Risk of psychosis is defined by the presence of positive psychotic-like symptoms, by subtle self-perceived cognitive and perceptual deficiencies, or by decreased functioning with familial risk of psychosis. We studied the associations of psychiatric outpatients' self-reported functioning and interpersonal relationships with vulnerability to and risk of psychosis.
A total of 790 young patients attending psychiatric outpatient care completed the PROD screen [Heinimaa M, Salokangas RKR, Ristkari T, Plathin M, Huttunen J, Ilonen T, et al. PROD-screen – a screen for prodromal symptoms of psychosis. Int J Meth Psychiatr Res 2003;12:92–04.], including questions on functioning, interpersonal relationships and subtle specific (psychotic-like) and non-specific symptoms. Vulnerability to psychosis was assessed employing the patient's written descriptions of specific symptoms. Of the patients vulnerable to psychosis, those at current risk of psychosis were assessed using the Bonn Scale for Assessment of Basic Symptoms [Schultze-Lutter F, Klosterkötter J. Bonn scale for assessment of basic symptoms – prediction list, BSABS-P. Cologne: University of Cologne; 2002] and the Structured Interview for Positive symptoms [Miller TJ, McGlashan TH, Rosen JL, Somjee L, Markovich PJ, Stein K, et al. Prospective diagnosis of the initial prodrome for schizophrenia based on the structured interview for prodromal syndromes: preliminary evidence of interrater reliability and predictive validity. Am J Psychiatry 2002;159:863–65.].
In all, 219 patients vulnerable to and 55 patients at current risk of psychosis were identified. Vulnerability to psychosis was associated with all items of functioning and interpersonal relationships. Current risk of psychosis, however, was associated only with the subjectively reported negative attitude of others. Negative attitude of others was also associated with feelings of reference at both vulnerability and risk levels.
The subjective experience of negative attitude of others towards oneself may be an early indicator of psychotic development.
Objective: To date no studies have investigated the personality functioning underlying patients diagnosed with polycystic lipomembranous osteodysplasia with sclerosing leukoencephalopathy (PLOSL) using the performance-based Rorschach test.
Methods: We scored and interpreted the Rorschach protocols of eight carefully diagnosed PLOSL patients according to Exner's Comprehensive System. The structural variables in the Rorschach are organised around the seven dimensions of personality functioning that they assess: coping style and resources, organising information, perceiving events, forming concepts and ideas, handling of emotions, self-perception and interpersonal perception.
Results: As a group PLOSL patients had many personality liabilities when contrasted with typical avoidant non-patient adults. A majority of patients showed an avoidant coping style (Lambda > 0.99), low productivity and poor verbal output in the low number of responses and few Blends. Also, they showed limited available resources to cope with problem-solving test. Problems in organising information efficiently, and perceiving events realistically as well as signs of disturbed thinking and concept formation were observed in many patients. Handling of emotions was characterised by avoidance of emotional stimuli but at the same time poor affect modulation. Capacities to view themselves and others were thoroughly limited.
Conclusions: PLOSL tends to have repercussions throughout the personality functioning. In line with clinical findings and later neuroradiological and neuropathological examinations the Rorschach revealed personality features typical for frontal type of dementia.
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