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We report a systematic spectroscopical investigation of three plagioclase particles (RB-QD04-0022, RA-QD02-0025-01, and RA-QD02-0025-02) returned by the Hayabusa spacecraft from the asteroid Itokawa, by means of scanning electron microscopy, cathodoluminescence microscopy/spectroscopy, and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The cathodoluminescence properties are used to evaluate the crystallization effects and the degree of space weathering processes, especially the shock-wave history of Itokawa. They provide new insights regarding spectral changes of asteroidal bodies due to space weathering processes. The cathodoluminescence spectra of the plagioclase particles from Itokawa show a defect-related broad band centered at around 450 nm, with a shoulder peak at 425 nm in the blue region, but there are no Mn- or Fe-related emission peaks. The absence of these crystal field-related activators indicates that the plagioclase was formed during thermal metamorphism at subsolidus temperature and extreme low oxygen fugacity. Luminescence characteristics of the selected samples do not show any signatures of the shock-induced microstructures or amorphization, indicating that these plagioclase samples suffered no (or low-shock pressure regime) shock metamorphism. Cathodoluminescence can play a key role as a powerful tool to determine mineralogy of fine-grained astromaterials.
CHD mortality is extremely low in Japan, particularly in rural districts, when compared with that in Western countries. This has been partly attributed to the difference in dietary lifestyle. We investigated the factors influencing CHD mortality in a rural coastal district of Japan, comprising mercantile, farming, and fishing areas with distinct dietary habits. We prospectively examined the incidence of CHD from 1994 to 1998, as well as coronary risk factors and serum fatty acid concentrations. The incidence of angina pectoris was significantly (P=0·01) lower in the fishing area than in the mercantile and farming areas. Blood pressure, physical activity, prevalence of diabetes, serum levels of uric acid and HDL-cholesterol were similar between the three areas. Total- and LDL-cholesterol levels were significantly lower but the smoking rate was markedly higher in the fishing area than in the other two areas. Serum levels of saturated fatty acids and n−6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were lowest in the fishing area, but n−3 PUFA did not differ significantly. The n−6:n−3 PUFA ratio was lowest and eicosapentaenoic:arachidonic acid was highest in the fishing area. Although many previous studies have emphasized the beneficial effect of n−3 PUFA in preventing CHD, the present study indicated that a lower intake of n−6 PUFA and saturated fatty acids has an additional preventive effect on CHD even when the serum level of n−3 PUFA is high because of high dietary fish consumption.
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