To further characterize caffeine-mediated psychopharmacological effects, the present study investigated whether acute caffeine (3, 10, 30, 50 mg/kg i.p.) exerted any influence on the emission and features of ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs), which are thought to index changes involving emotional state, in male adult rats. The results obtained demonstrate that caffeine can trigger modifications in the maximum peak frequency and bandwidth of the 50-kHz range USVs. However, such an effect was not accompanied by a significant elevation in the number of 50-kHz USVs, relative to administration of vehicle. Under the same experimental conditions, acute amphetamine (2 mg/kg i.p.) robustly elevated the number of 50-kHz USVs emitted by rats, although it did not affect the maximum peak frequency and bandwidth of USVs. Thus, both qualitative and quantitative differences in the effects exerted by caffeine and amphetamine on 50-kHz USVs were observed. Taken together, these findings further clarify the features of caffeine-mediated psychopharmacological effects, and may help to elucidate the differences between the central effects of caffeine and those elicited by other psychostimulants.