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The virus responsible for the coronavirus-19 pandemic is predominantly spread by droplet and contact routes of transmission. Many airway management interventions, particularly when applying positive pressure to the airway, generate aerosol particles which pose a further risk of airborne viral transmission. The fundamental principles of airway management in the setting of a respiratory epidemic are not changed but it is essential to maximise safety for both the patient and all staff involved in caring for them. The airway manager should fully understand and apply principles of infection prevention and control, including understanding and matching personal protective equipment (PPE) to the prevailing mode of viral transmission. Airway management should be meticulously planned, safe for the patient and staff, be undertaken by skilled operators using reliable, well-practised techniques and should aim to achieve high first-attempt success rates so that securing the airway is timely and swift.
Supraglottic airways (SGAs) have been part of core anaesthetic practice for approximately 30 years, since the introduction of the classic laryngeal mask which is described in some detail. In many countries an SGA is now used for airway management for the majority of anaesthetics. Optimal use and insertion technique are described. The range of SGAs available and their roles have expanded dramatically in this time. Second generation SGAs are those designed to reduce the risk of aspiration and are emphasised in this chapter. With the wide range of SGAs available it can be problematic to decide which device to use and this is especially so as the boundaries of acceptable use are ever widened. This chapter describes those devices with the greatest versatility and utility – arguably also with the greatest safety profile too – and some newer devices. SGAs have a major role to play in advanced and difficult airway management. The use of an SGA as a rescue device and as a conduit for intubation during management of the difficult airway is described in detail.
Videolaryngoscopes have been in existence for several decades but in the last decade have taken a central role in both difficult and routine airway management. During that time videolaryngoscopy has not only become embedded in most difficult airway algorithms but the technique has become part of core airway management skills and the use of awake videolaryngoscopy has increased. This chapter describes the various types of videolaryngoscopes, their roles, strengths and limitations. Strategies to optimise use of Macintosh and hyperangulated devices are described as well as which adjuncts are best suited to their use. The issue of ‘can see, cannot intubate’ is discussed along with techniques to overcome it. The role of videolaryngoscopy outside the operating theatre, in critical care, in the emergency department and in pre-hospital care is discussed in this and other chapters.
Despite the training and skills of airway managers, airway management complications still occur and may cause patient harm or death. The causes are multifactorial and may include patient, environment and clinician factors. Airway complications likely contribute to a significant proportion of deaths due to anaesthesia and are certainly more common outside the operating theatre and especially in the critical care unit. Reported incidences of failure and harm during airway management vary depending on the population studied and definitions used. Numbers may be of less value than understanding themes that help us improve care and reduce harm. The chapter emphasises that conventional research (e.g. device evaluation studies and randomised controlled trials) may be of little use in identifying low frequency events and complications because of their restricted inclusion and exclusion criteria, the use of devices only by experts and in conventional settings and because of their focus on efficacy rather than safety. The chapter highlights the important and growing role of registries and databases. Several are described in detail including the 4th National Audit Project and the Dutch ‘mini-NAP’. The value and limitations of litigation databases are explored. Specific complications of note are described at the end of the chapter.
Management of the airway is an important and challenging aspect of many clinicians' work and is a source of complications and litigation. The new edition of this popular book remains a clear, practical and highly-illustrated guide to all necessary aspects of airway management. The book has been updated throughout, to cover all changes to best practice and clinical management and provides extensive coverage of the key skills and knowledge required to manage airways in a wide variety of patients and clinical settings. The best of the previous editions has been preserved, whilst new chapters on videolaryngoscopy, awake tracheal intubation, lung separation, airway ultrasonography, airway management in an epidemic and many more have been added. This is an essential text for anyone who manages the airway including trainees and specialists in anaesthesia, emergency medicine, intensive care medicine, prehospital medicine as well as nurses and other healthcare professionals.
New radiocarbon (14C) dates suggest a simultaneous appearance of two technologically and geographically distinct axe production practices in Neolithic Britain; igneous open-air quarries in Great Langdale, Cumbria, and from flint mines in southern England at ~4000–3700 cal BC. In light of the recent evidence that farming was introduced at this time by large-scale immigration from northwest Europe, and that expansion within Britain was extremely rapid, we argue that this synchronicity supports this speed of colonization and reflects a knowledge of complex extraction processes and associated exchange networks already possessed by the immigrant groups; long-range connections developed as colonization rapidly expanded. Although we can model the start of these new extraction activities, it remains difficult to estimate how long significant production activity lasted at these key sites given the nature of the record from which samples could be obtained.
Palliative care for nursing home residents with advanced dementia is often sub-optimal due to poor communication and limited care planning. In a cluster randomized controlled trial, registered nurses (RNs) from 10 nursing homes were trained and funded to work as Palliative Care Planning Coordinators (PCPCs) to organize family case conferences and mentor staff. This qualitative sub-study aimed to explore PCPC and health professional perceptions of the benefits of facilitated case conferencing and identify factors influencing implementation.
Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the RNs in the PCPC role, other members of nursing home staff, and physicians who participated in case conferences. Analysis was conducted by two researchers using a thematic framework approach.
Interviews were conducted with 11 PCPCs, 18 other nurses, eight allied health workers, and three physicians. Perceived benefits of facilitated case conferencing included better communication between staff and families, greater multi-disciplinary involvement in case conferences and care planning, and improved staff attitudes and capabilities for dementia palliative care. Key factors influencing implementation included: staffing levels and time; support from management, staff and physicians; and positive family feedback.
The facilitated approach explored in this study addressed known barriers to case conferencing. However, current business models in the sector make it difficult for case conferencing to receive the required levels of nursing qualification, training, and time. A collaborative nursing home culture and ongoing relationships with health professionals are also prerequisites for success. Further studies should document resident and family perceptions to harness consumer advocacy.
The present study aimed to identify themes emerging from an inclusive therapeutic recreational camp experience for children with disabilities who attended a 10-day summer camp. Concept mapping was used to analyse the experience of 42 participants. Results emerged with seven themes: Personal Growth; Nurturing Relationships; Non-judgmental Environment and Attitude; Traditional/Classic Camp Fun; Beneficial and Unique Opportunities; Learning/Thinking with Structures and Rules; and Independence and Recognition. Results suggested that children with disabilities experienced positive personal growth and learned new skills from an integrated, therapeutic camp. These children benefited from the social and psychological aspects of the camp experience, as well as the learned skillset and behaviours. Clinical implications and future research directions are also discussed.