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A growing body of research suggests that deficient emotional self-regulation (DESR) is common and morbid among attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients. The main aim of the present study was to assess whether high and low levels of DESR in adult ADHD patients can be operationalized and whether they are clinically useful.
A total of 441 newly referred 18- to 55-year-old adults of both sexes with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Fifth Edition (DSM-5) ADHD completed self-reported rating scales. We operationalized DESR using items from the Barkley Current Behavior Scale. We used receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves to identify the optimal cut-off on the Barkley Emotional Dysregulation (ED) Scale to categorize patients as having high- versus low-level DESR and compared demographic and clinical characteristics between the groups.
We averaged the optimal Barkley ED Scale cut-points from the ROC curve analyses across all subscales and categorized ADHD patients as having high- (N = 191) or low-level (N = 250) DESR (total Barkley ED Scale score ≥8 or <8, respectively). Those with high-level DESR had significantly more severe symptoms of ADHD, executive dysfunction, autistic traits, levels of psychopathology, and worse quality of life compared with those with low-level DESR. There were no major differences in outcomes among medicated and unmedicated patients.
High levels of DESR are common in adults with ADHD and when present represent a burdensome source of added morbidity and disability worthy of further clinical and scientific attention.
Analysis of human remains and a copper band found in the center of a Late Archaic (ca. 5000–3000 cal BP) shell ring demonstrate an exchange network between the Great Lakes and the coastal southeast United States. Similarities in mortuary practices suggest that the movement of objects between these two regions was more direct and unmediated than archaeologists previously assumed based on “down-the-line” models of exchange. These findings challenge prevalent notions that view preagricultural Native American communities as relatively isolated from one another and suggest instead that wide social networks spanned much of North America thousands of years before the advent of domestication.
To investigate whether specific symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can help identify ADHD patients with mind wandering.
Subjects were adults ages 18–55 of both sexes (n=41) who completed the Mind-Wandering Questionnaire (MWQ) and the ADHD module of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children Epidemiologic Version. We used Spearman’s rank correlation and Pearson’s χ2 analyses to examine associations between the ADHD module and the MWQ and receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analyses to evaluate the diagnostic efficiency of the ADHD module.
Out of the three ADHD domains, the inattentive ADHD scores had the strongest association with the MWQ (total: rs=0.34, df=39, p=0.03; inattentive: rs=0.38, df=39, p=0.02; Hyperactive: rs=0.17, df=39, p=0.28). Correlation analyses between individual items on the ADHD module and the MWQ showed that two inattention items (‘failure to pay attention to detail’ and ‘trouble following instructions’) were positively associated with total scores on the MWQ (p=0.02). These two inattention items had the strongest association with the MWQ (rs=0.45, df=38, p=0.004). ROC analyses showed that the combined score of the two significant inattention items had the highest efficiency (AUC=0.71) in classifying high-level mind wanderers as defined by scores greater than the median split on the MWQ. The combined score of the two inattention items best identified high-level mind wanderers.
Results suggest a way to operationalise mind wandering using the symptoms of ADHD.
Warfare on the periphery of Europe and across cultural boundaries is a particular focus of this volume. One article, on Castilian seapower, treats the melding of northern and southern naval traditions; another clarifies the military roles of the Ayyubid and Mamluk miners and stoneworkers in siege warfare; a third emphasizes cultural considerations in an Icelandic conflict; a fourth looks at how an Iberian prelate navigated the line between ecclesiastical and military responsibilities; and a fifth analyzes the different roles of early gunpowder weapons in Europe and China, linking technological history with the significance of human geography. Further contributions also consider technology, two dealing with fifteenth-century English artillery and the third with prefabricated mechanical artillery during the Crusades. Another theme of the volume is source criticism, with re-examinations of the sources for Owain Glyndwr's (possible) victory at Hyddgen in 1401, a (possible) Danish attack on England in 1128, and the role of non-milites in Salian warfare. Contributors: Nicolas Agrait, Tonio Andrade, David Bachrach, Oren Falk, Devin Fields, Michael S. Fulton, Thomas K. Heeboll-Holm, Rabei G. Khamisy, Michael Livingstone, Dan Spencer, L.J. Andrew Villalon
Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a chronic neurobehavioral disorder characterized by persistent and often acute distractibility, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. It is a condition usually associated with children but in recent years the diagnosis of ADHD in adults has risen significantly. ADHD often coexists with a wide array of other psychiatric illnesses, including depression and bipolar disorder, thus complicating its assessment and management. In Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Adults and Children, a team of world renowned experts bring together the recent research in this area and cover the history, diagnosis, epidemiology, comorbidity, neuroimaging, and a full spectrum of clinical options for the management of ADHD. The wide ranging, detailed coverage in this text will be of interest to psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, coaches, physicians, or anyone who wants to develop a deeper understanding of the etiology, characteristics, developmental process, diagnostics, and range of treatment modalities.
The aim of this study was to investigate spatial variation in risk of hospitalization in childhood pneumonia and empyema in the North of England and associated risk factors. Data on childhood (0–14 years) hospital admissions with a diagnosis pneumonia or empyema were linked to postcode districts. Bayesian conditional autoregressive models were used to evaluate spatial variation and the relevance of specific spatial covariates in an area-based study using postcode as the areal unit. There was a sixfold variation in the risk of hospitalization due to pneumonia across the study region. Variation in risk was associated with material deprivation, Child Well-being Index (CWI) health domain score, number of children requiring local authority support, and distance to hospital. No significant spatial variation in risk for empyema was found.