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Scandinavian countries have historically been liberal frontrunners in regard to asylum and immigration policy. Today, however, this picture has changed and each of the Scandinavian countries has introduced more restrictive measures. The present chapter examines the various domestic policy measures adopted by Denmark, Norway and Sweden in the field of asylum and immigration since 2015 and the dilemmas they raise for the traditional “Scandinavian humanitarian brand.” It argues that the particular kind of restrictive policymaking pursued by Scandinavian countries can be conceptualized as a form of negative nation branding. In order to achieve the deterrent effect of these policies, Scandinavian states are further prompted to actively advertise new restrictions in public discourse and through targeted campaigns. On this basis, the chapter discusses whether negative nation branding in regard to asylum and migration have international spillover effects.
In this study, we examined the relationship between polygenic liability for depression and number of stressful life events (SLEs) as risk factors for early-onset depression treated in inpatient, outpatient or emergency room settings at psychiatric hospitals in Denmark.
Data were drawn from the iPSYCH2012 case-cohort sample, a population-based sample of individuals born in Denmark between 1981 and 2005. The sample included 18 532 individuals who were diagnosed with depression by a psychiatrist by age 31 years, and a comparison group of 20 184 individuals. Information on SLEs was obtained from nationwide registers and operationalized as a time-varying count variable. Hazard ratios and cumulative incidence rates were estimated using Cox regressions.
Risk for depression increased by 35% with each standard deviation increase in polygenic liability (p < 0.0001), and 36% (p < 0.0001) with each additional SLE. There was a small interaction between polygenic liability and SLEs (β = −0.04, p = 0.0009). The probability of being diagnosed with depression in a hospital-based setting between ages 15 and 31 years ranged from 1.5% among males in the lowest quartile of polygenic liability with 0 events by age 15, to 18.8% among females in the highest quartile of polygenic liability with 4+ events by age 15.
These findings suggest that although there is minimal interaction between polygenic liability and SLEs as risk factors for hospital-treated depression, combining information on these two important risk factors could potentially be useful for identifying high-risk individuals.
Common gardens are experimental plantations for comparing the performance of tree species while eliminating many of the variables that prevail in natural tree stands. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biodiversity of corticolous lichens on Danish tree species (Acer pseudoplatanus, Alnus glutinosa, Betula pendula, Fagus sylvatica, Fraxinus excelsior, Quercus robur and Tilia cordata) under common garden conditions and to examine the height distribution of particular lichen species. Observations were recorded through regular sampling of at least 36 lichen species on the main stems (from the base of the stem to the treetops) of 44-year-old trees at four common garden sites. Acer pseudoplatanus and Fraxinus excelsior had the greatest lichen species richness and Shannon diversity values while these measures were significantly lower for Betula pendula and Fagus sylvatica. The distribution of lichen species appeared biased among tree species. The general lichen distribution and relative sample height were weakly related (nonmetric multidimensional scaling). However, single lichen species showed a clear differential distribution along the tree stem (P < 0.001, non-parametric multiplicative regression and logistic log-binomial regression). Lepraria incana, Pseudosagedia aenea and Arthonia atra were mainly found at the stem base while Lecanora carpinea, L. chlarotera, Lecidella elaeochroma, Physcia tenella and Xanthoria parietina, were most abundant at around 70% of the total tree height. The differential distribution of single lichen species presumably reflects different specific requirements during spore germination and thallus growth. By isolating the unique effect of key variables (tree species and height), this study contributes to the knowledge base of corticolous lichen ecology.
This Article develops what we call a “topographical approach” to accountability in migration control. Drawing on different strands of scholarship, including legal geography, “legal black holes,” and work on strategic litigation, we approach accountability by perceiving the site of a violation from a bird's-eye view and mapping different accountability structures across diverse legal regimes and via a broadened geographic lens. Rather than advocating for accountability in regard to particular regimes or jurisdictions, we argue that multi-pronged approaches are likely to remain the best starting point for ensuring accountability for human rights violations in the context of current migration control practices. The topographical approach thus offers a general framework for identifying existing blind spots, critically assessing existing trajectories, as well as exploring the wider grid of potential accountability mechanisms.
Genomic sequencing plays an increasing role in genetic research, also in psychiatry. This raises challenges concerning the validity and type of the informed consent and the return of incidental findings. However, no solution currently exists on the best way to obtain the informed consent and deliver findings to research subjects.
This study aims to explore the attitudes among potential stakeholders in psychiatric genomic research toward the consenting procedure and the delivery of incidental findings.
We developed a cross-sectional web-based survey among five groups of stakeholders. A total of 2637 stakeholders responded: 241 persons with a mental disorder, 671 relatives, 1623 blood donors, 74 psychiatrists, and 28 clinical geneticists.
The stakeholders wanted active involvement as 92.7% preferred a specific consent and 85.1% wanted to receive information through a dynamic consent procedure. The majority of stakeholders preferred to receive genomic information related to serious or life-threatening health conditions through direct contact (69.5%) with a health professional, i.e. face-to-face consultation or telephone consultation (82.4%). Persons with mental disorders and relatives did not differ in their attitudes from the other stakeholder groups.
The findings illustrate that the stakeholders want to be more actively involved and consider consent as a reciprocal transaction between the involved subjects and the researchers in the project. The results highlight the importance of collaboration between researchers and clinical geneticists as the latter are trained, through their education and clinical experience, to return and explain genomic data to patients, relatives, and research subjects.
The design of government portfolios – that is, the distribution of competencies among government ministries and office holders – has been largely ignored in the study of executive and coalition politics. This article argues that portfolio design is a substantively and theoretically relevant phenomenon that has major implications for the study of institutional design and coalition politics. The authors use comparative data on portfolio design reforms in nine Western European countries since the 1970s to demonstrate how the design of government portfolios changes over time. Specifically, they show that portfolios are changed frequently (on average about once a year) and that such shifts are more likely after changes in the prime ministership or the party composition of the government. These findings suggest a political logic behind these reforms based on the preferences and power of political parties and politicians. They have major implications for the study of institutional design and coalition politics.