The purpose of the study was to verify the effect of 4 weeks of a high-fructose diet (HFD) associated with aerobic training on the risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases. Twenty-one young adults were randomised into three groups: HFD (HFD: 1 g/kg body weight of fructose/day), high-glucose diet (HGD: 1 g/kg body weight of glucose/day) and high-fructose diet and exercise (HFDE: 1 g/kg body weight of fructose/day + 3 weekly 60-minute sessions of aerobic exercise). Before and after the 4 weeks of the intervention, blood samples were taken and flow-mediated dilatation, insulin resistance index, pancreatic beta cell functional capacity index, insulin sensitivity index and 24-h blood pressure were evaluated. HFD showed an increase in uric acid concentrations (P = 0·040), and HGD and HFDE groups showed no changes in this outcome between pre- and post-intervention; however, the HFDE group showed increased uric acid concentrations from the middle to the end of the intervention (P = 0·013). In addition, the HFD group showed increases in nocturnal systolic blood pressure (SBP) (P = 0·022) and nocturnal diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (P = 0·009). The HGD group exhibited decreases in nocturnal SBP (P = 0·028) and nocturnal DBP (P = 0·031), and the HFDE group showed a decrease in 24-h SBP (P = 0·018). The consumption of 1 g/kg of fructose per day may increase uric acid concentrations and blood pressure in adults. Additionally, aerobic exercises along with fructose consumption attenuate changes in uric acid concentrations and prevent impairment in nocturnal blood pressure.