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Dependence of band alignments at interfaces between CdS by chemical bath deposition and Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 by conventional 3-stage co-evaporation on Ga substitution ratio x from 0.2 to 1.0 has been systematically studied by means of photoemission spectroscopy (PES) and inverse photoemission spectroscopy (IPES). For the specimens of the In-rich CIGS, conduction band minimum (CBM) by CIGS was lower than that of CdS. Conduction band offset of them was positive about +0.3 ~ +0.4 eV. Almost flat conduction band alignment was realized at x = 0.4 ~ 0.5. On the other hand, at the interfaces over the Ga-rich CIGS, CBM of CIGS was higher than that of CdS, and CBO became negative. The present study reveals that the decrease of CBO with a rise of x presents over the wide rage of x, which results in the sign change of CBO around 0.4 ~ 0.45. In the Ga-rich interfaces, the minimum of band gap energy, which corresponded to energy spacing between CBM of CdS and valence band maximum of CIGS, was almost identical against the change of band gap energy of CIGS. Additionally, local accumulation of oxygen related impurities was observed at the Ga-rich samples, which might cause the local rise of band edges in central region of the interface.
In-situ characterization of composition, electronic structure and their depth profiles of surface of Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 (CIGS) film grown by three stage co-evaporation has been carried out by means of photoemission and inverse photoemission spectroscopy (PES/IPES), for the purpose of investigating the formation mechanism of the CIGS-side wide band-gap region adjacent to CBD-CdS/CIGS interface in cell structure. Sample-transportation in vacuum below 1 x 10-8 Torr yielded almost contamination-free feature of the CIGS surface. The as-transferred surface of Cu0.93(In0.65Ga0.35)Se2 grown at the identical condition for the high performance solar cell exhibited seriously Cu and Ga deficient composition. Chemical formula of this region was inbetween Cu : (In+Ga): Se = 1 : 3 : 5 and 1 : 5 : 8. In-situ UPS/IPES measurements CIGS showed that the as-grown surface region of the CIGS already had expanded band gap energy up to 1.4 eV and n-type character. A gradual decrease of band energy and a rise of valence band maximum as a function of depth from the original surface were observed. These results have revealed that the surface of CIGS by the three stage method already has the wide band gap, which might originate in so-called Cu-vacancy ordered phase.
For understanding the origin of the improvements of properties in the CIGS-based cells, of which the CIGS absorber has been fabricated by H2O-introduced co-evaporation [CIGS-H2O], band alignment at the interfaces between chemical bath deposited CdS and CIGS-H2O with Ga substitution ratio ~ 40 % has been studied by photoemission and inverse photoemission spectroscopy. The CdS layer over the CIGS-H2O showed an identical electronic structure with that of CdS on the conventionally grown CIGS; band gap energy of 2.3 ~ 2.4 and a location of conduction band minimum (CBM) and valence band maximum (VBM) relative to Fermi level were + 0.75 eV and -1.6 ~ -1.7 eV, respectively. In the interface region, decreases of CBM and a rise of VBM were observed. Total amount of the decrease of CBM over the interface was 0.2 ~ 0.3 eV. XPS measurements of the core-level signals over the interface showed a small upward bend bending of 0.1 ~ 0.2 eV. Consequently, the conduction band offset (CBO) and valence bad offset (VBO) at the CBD-interface over the CIGS-H2O (Ga~40%) are about +0.1, and 0.9 ~ 1.1 eV, respectively. This positive CBO is contrast with a slightly negative CBO at the interface between CBD-CdS/conventionally grown CIGS with Ga ~ 40 % measured previously. These results indicate that the H2O introduction is effective to extend the upper limit of the Ga substitution ratio where the Type-I conduction band alignment is maintained. The observed band alignments are consistent with the rise of Voc and efficiency in the CIGS-H2O based cells.
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