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This study aims to evaluate the long-term impact of living in postdisaster prefabricated temporary housing on social interaction activities and mental health status.
A total of 917 adult residents in a coastal town, whose residences were destroyed by the tsunami caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE), were enrolled for the assessment held 5 y after the disaster. They answered questions about their experience and consequence of living in prefabricated temporary housing after the disaster. Their present scores on 5 types of self-reported measures regarding the psychosocial or psychiatric status and their present and recalled social interaction activities were cross-sectionally collected.
A total of 587 (64.0%) participants had a history of living in prefabricated temporary housing, while the other 330 (36.0%) had not. The prevalence of social interaction activities significantly decreased after the GEJE. However, the experience of living in prefabricated temporary housing did not adversely affect the subsequent social interaction activities or mental conditions of the participants 5 y after the disaster.
Living in postdisaster prefabricated temporary housing may not negatively impact subsequent psychosocial conditions or social interaction activities 5 y later.
On March 11, 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake struck the northeastern coast of Japan with the magnitude nine. Ishinomaki medical zone was affected most severely with 328 evacuation shelters and approximately 50,000 evacuees. The Ishinomaki Zone Joint Relief Team gathered information directly from all evacuation shelters using assessment sheets. Based on this assessment data, various measures were carried out for environmental improvement of the shelters. To prepare for the next major disaster, a software program called Rapid Assessment System of Evacuation Center Condition - Gonryo and Miyagi (RASECC-GM) was developed, which computerizes the whole process, including entering, tabulating, and managing of shelter assessment data.
To verify the feasibility, usability, and accuracy of RASECC-GM, a verification test was performed using mock shelter data on October 23-26, 2018, to coincide with Logistics Training Course of Medical Logistics for Disasters held by Iwate Medical University.
On October 22, 2018 at four simulated disaster relief and health care branches, participants at each branch were asked to enter two mock shelter data items, submit a closed shelter request, and register a new shelter using RASECC-GM, respectively. The next day participants were asked to enter two mock shelter data items per branch while offline and upload the data to the server when next online. The uploaded data was checked for accuracy and whether it could be viewed on the management screen. After the test, a questionnaire survey was given to participants to verify the feasibility and usability of RASECC-GM.
It was confirmed that RASECC-GM functioned almost correctly. All participants answered that input operation was easy to understand, and 90.9% of participants could input without a mistake and did not feel stress when inputting data.
RASECC-GM appeared to be useful to shelter assessment, but further improvements are needed for practical use.
There were 5,385 deceased and 710 missing in the Ishinomaki medical zone following the Great East Japan Earthquake that occurred in Japan on March 11, 2011. The Ishinomaki Zone Joint Relief Team (IZJRT) was formed to unify the relief teams of all organizations joining in support of the Ishinomaki area. The IZJRT expanded relief activity as they continued to manually collect and analyze assessments of essential information for maintaining health in all 328 shelters using a paper-type survey. However, the IZJRT spent an enormous amount of time and effort entering and analyzing these data because the work was vastly complex. Therefore, an assessment system must be developed that can tabulate shelter assessment data correctly and efficiently. The objective of this report was to describe the development and verification of a system to rapidly assess evacuation centers in preparation for the next major disaster.
Based on experiences with the complex work during the disaster, software called the “Rapid Assessment System of Evacuation Center Condition featuring Gonryo and Miyagi” (RASECC-GM) was developed to enter, tabulate, and manage the shelter assessment data. Further, a verification test was conducted during a large-scale Self-Defense Force (SDF) training exercise to confirm its feasibility, usability, and accuracy. The RASECC-GM comprises three screens: (1) the “Data Entry screen,” allowing for quick entry on tablet devices of 19 assessment items, including shelter administrator, living and sanitary conditions, and a tally of the injured and sick; (2) the “Relief Team/Shelter Management screen,” for registering information on relief teams and shelters; and (3) the “Data Tabulation screen,” which allows tabulation of the data entered for each shelter, as well as viewing and sorting from a disaster headquarters’ computer. During the verification test, data of mock shelters entered online were tabulated quickly and accurately on a mock disaster headquarters’ computer. Likewise, data entered offline also were tabulated quickly on the mock disaster headquarters’ computer when the tablet device was moved into an online environment.
The RASECC-GM, a system for rapidly assessing the condition of evacuation centers, was developed. Tests verify that users of the system would be able to easily, quickly, and accurately assess vast quantities of data from multiple shelters in a major disaster and immediately manage the inputted data at the disaster headquarters.
IshiiT, NakayamaM, AbeM, TakayamaS, KameiT, AbeY, YamaderaJ, AmitoK, MorinoK. Development and Verification of a Mobile Shelter Assessment System “Rapid Assessment System of Evacuation Center Condition Featuring Gonryo and Miyagi (RASECC-GM)” for Major Disasters. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(5):539–546.
We developed a new GaN on SiC growth method by metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE) using of a single 2-dimension-growth step. Prior to epitaxy, to inhibit pre-reaction of Si-face SiC substrate with TMGa and NH3, TMAl was flowed without NH3. 1.5 μm of undoped crack-free GaN was grown on 6H-SiC (Si-face). Without buffer layer, the vertical resistance of GaN/SiC structure was found to be around 82.1Ω as determined by I-V characteristic. Further reduction in vertical resistance is expected by growth of n-GaN (1.5μm)/SiC structure (300μm). We also expect a SiC-based GaN heterostructure vertical FET will achieve high power and high switching speed performance.
When disasters that affect a wide area occur, external medical relief teams play a critical role in the affected areas by helping to alleviate the burden caused by surging numbers of individuals requiring health care. Despite this, no system has been established for managing deployed medical relief teams during the subacute phase following a disaster.
After the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami, the Ishinomaki Medical Zone was the most severely-affected area. Approximately 6,000 people died or were missing, and the immediate evacuation of approximately 120,000 people to roughly 320 shelters was required. As many as 59 medical teams came to participate in relief activities. Daily coordination of activities and deployment locations became a significant burden to headquarters. The Area-based/Line-linking Support System (Area-Line System) was thus devised to resolve these issues for medical relief and coordinating activities.
A retrospective analysis was performed to examine the effectiveness of the medical relief provided to evacuees using the Area-Line System with regards to the activities of the medical relief teams and the coordinating headquarters. The following were compared before and after establishment of the Area-Line System: (1) time required at the coordinating headquarters to collect and tabulate medical records from shelters visited; (2) time required at headquarters to determine deployment locations and activities of all medical relief teams; and (3) inter-area variation in number of patients per team.
The time required to collect and tabulate medical records was reduced from approximately 300 to 70 minutes/day. The number of teams at headquarters required to sort through data was reduced from 60 to 14. The time required to determine deployment locations and activities of the medical relief teams was reduced from approximately 150 hours/month to approximately 40 hours/month. Immediately prior to establishment of the Area-Line System, the variation of the number of patients per team was highest. Variation among regions did not increase after establishment of the system.
This descriptive analysis indicated that implementation of the Area-Line System, a systematic approach for long-term disaster medical relief across a wide area, can increase the efficiency of relief provision to disaster-stricken areas.
YamanouchiS, IshiiT, MorinoK, FurukawaH, HozawaA, OchiS, KushimotoS. Streamlining of Medical Relief to Areas Affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake with the “Area-based/Line-linking Support System”Prehosp Disaster Med. 2014;29(6):1-9.
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