To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Psychiatry has never been without vociferous critics. Anti-psychiatry raised legitimate, albeit irritating, concerns about psychiatric practice. Clinical psychologists in Britain now outnumber psychiatrists, with an enormously expanded clinical remit. Lead psychologists are now as experienced as consultant psychiatrist and vie for leadership. To pretend that all is well in the world of professional mental health practice and relationship is dangerous.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: This work aims to identify best practices for university-based asset development programs to improve commercialization throughput, which in turn will drive innovation in the biomedical space and directly contribute to improved human health. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: University technology transfer exhibits a high rate of failure, often due to a lack of researcher experience or early-stage financial capital. The LEAP program at Washington University (WUSTL) was created to address these needs. The goal of this study is to assess the performance of LEAP against similar gap funds and further improve program operations. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: The goals of LEAP are achieved by providing university inventors with individualized consulting and feedback from industry experts, as well as awarding funding to the most promising projects. To determine whether these activities are impactful, we distributed an awardee report form to collect data on all funded LEAP projects, and then combined the results with project registration information. We also collected records Office of Technology Management, including invention disclosures, licenses, and startup creations. The resulting dataset was used to calculate program metrics and then evaluated against comparable gap funds. Sentiment data from participant surveys were also analyzed to assess perceived program value and knowledge transfer. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: As of the Sp2020 cycle, LEAP has funded 76 projects. Resubmitted projects had a funding rate of 52%, vs. 34% for new projects. Of the startups founded off of WUSTL intellectual property since 2016, nearly two-thirds had previously participated in LEAP. Funded LEAP projects also had a 29% licensing rate, which is comparable to similar gap funds. Lastly, participants self-reported an increase in knowledge across a range of commercialization areas. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: The increased repeat funding rate and self-reported knowledge suggest that LEAP is impactful in building commercialization proficiency. The licensing rate and prevalence of LEAP projects in WUSTL startups also indicate that LEAP is indeed promoting tech transfer. Together, these results suggest that LEAP could be a model for other institutions.
A Nutrition Society member-led meeting was held on 9 January 2020 at The University of Surrey, UK. Sixty people registered for the event, and all were invited to participate, either through chairing a session, presenting a ‘3 min lightning talk’ or by presenting a poster. The meeting consisted of an introduction to the topic by Dr Barbara Fielding, with presentations from eight invited speakers. There were also eight lightning talks and a poster session. The meeting aimed to highlight recent research that has used stable isotope tracer techniques to understand human metabolism. Such studies have irrefutably shaped our current understanding of metabolism and yet remain a mystery to many. The meeting aimed to de-mystify their use in nutrition research.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: The development of early university technologies for commercialization is largely inefficient and exhibits a high rate of failure, often due to a lack of researcher time and commercialization experience. We have created the Translational Fellow role to address these needs and increase the throughput of university technology transfer. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Translational Fellows will first build their initial competencies to identify, evaluate, and develop new technologies through internships with intake organizations within the university ecosystem, including the Office of Technology Management, the LEAP gap-funding mechanism, and local venture capital firms. Following this training, Fellows will provide tailored support to validated projects by establishing development milestones, liaising with industry experts, navigating regulatory requirements, and drafting marketing materials such as executive summaries and financial projections. Lastly, Fellows will partner with a highly developed project to facilitate the commercialization of the technology, whether through a SBIR/STTR grant, direct licensing event, or startup creation. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We anticipate that implementation of this mechanism will increase the proportion of university-generated inventions that undergo successful commercialization events, as well as increase the rate at which these projects develop after initial validation. Furthermore, we expect that the skills acquired through this program will allow Fellows to successfully transition to a variety of roles in the biotech space. We also expect that Fellows will be capable of training other scientific teams in the preparation of SBIR/STTR grants, further expanding opportunities for commercialization in the research space. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Translational Fellows fill a unique interdisciplinary niche, allowing them to address common barriers faced by academic inventors. Improving commercialization throughput further capitalizes on the wealth of ideas generated in universities, thereby driving innovation in the biomedical space and directly contributing to improved human health. CONFLICT OF INTEREST DESCRIPTION: The authors have no conflicts of interest.
We describe the design and performance of the Engineering Development Array, which is a low-frequency radio telescope comprising 256 dual-polarisation dipole antennas working as a phased array. The Engineering Development Array was conceived of, developed, and deployed in just 18 months via re-use of Square Kilometre Array precursor technology and expertise, specifically from the Murchison Widefield Array radio telescope. Using drift scans and a model for the sky brightness temperature at low frequencies, we have derived the Engineering Development Array’s receiver temperature as a function of frequency. The Engineering Development Array is shown to be sky-noise limited over most of the frequency range measured between 60 and 240 MHz. By using the Engineering Development Array in interferometric mode with the Murchison Widefield Array, we used calibrated visibilities to measure the absolute sensitivity of the array. The measured array sensitivity matches very well with a model based on the array layout and measured receiver temperature. The results demonstrate the practicality and feasibility of using Murchison Widefield Array-style precursor technology for Square Kilometre Array-scale stations. The modular architecture of the Engineering Development Array allows upgrades to the array to be rolled out in a staged approach. Future improvements to the Engineering Development Array include replacing the second stage beamformer with a fully digital system, and to transition to using RF-over-fibre for the signal output from first stage beamformers.
St Andrews was of tremendous significance in medieval Scotland. Its importance remains readily apparent in the buildings which cluster the rocky promontory jutting out into the North Sea: the towers and walls of cathedral, castle and university provide reminders of the status and wealth of the city in the Middle Ages. As a centre of earthly and spiritual government, as the place of veneration forScotland's patron saint and as an ancient seat of learning, St Andrews was the ecclesiastical capital of Scotland. This volume provides the first full study of this special and multi-faceted centre throughout its golden age. The fourteen chapters use St Andrews as a focus for the discussion of multiple aspects of medieval life in Scotland. They examine church, spirituality, urban society andlearning in a specific context from the seventh to the sixteenth century, allowing for the consideration of St Andrews alongside other great religious and political centres of medieval Europe.
Michael Brown is Professor of Medieval Scottish History, University of St Andrews; Katie Stevenson is Keeper of Scottish History and Archaeology, National Museums Scotland and Senior Lecturer in Late Medieval History, University of St Andrews.
Contributors: Michael Brown, Ian Campbell, David Ditchburn, Elizabeth Ewan, Richard Fawcett, Derek Hall, Matthew Hammond, Julian Luxford, Roger Mason, Norman Reid, Bess Rhodes, Catherine Smith, Katie Stevenson, Simon Taylor, Tom Turpie.
This article furthers our understanding of how state and citizens interact to produce local institutions and examines the effects of these processes. It brings critical institutional theory into engagement with ideas about everyday governance to analyze how hybrid arrangements are formed through bricolage. Such a perspective helps us to understand governance arrangements as both negotiated and structured, benefiting some and disadvantaging others. To explore these points the article tracks the evolution of the Sungusungu, a hybrid pastoralist security institution in the Usangu Plains, Tanzania. It also considers the wider implications of such hybrid arrangements for livelihoods, social inclusion, distributive justice, and citizenship.
Previous research on the catastrophic decline of the Gyps species complex has identified diclofenac, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug administered to livestock, as the primary cause. Large-scale climatic phenomena, such as ENSO-induced drought, however have not been examined. Based on time series analysis of annual count data, 1996–2005, we provide evidence that ENSO synchronised population dynamics throughout western Rajasthan. Here, we ask whether El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) can also explain the population dynamics of the Critically Endangered Indian Vulture Gyps indicus. We attribute this impact largely to two La Niña events, including the major event spanning 1999. We also examine between-village variation in resident vulture populations. Our results suggest that in several villages, Indian Vulture populations may have been partially buffered from the negative effects of drought when compared to other villages in the study. Finally, we discuss potential causes of buffering in these villages.
Hate crime is always going to be a historically and culturally contingent social construct, such that the concept varies radically around the world. Although, the extent of hate crime is notoriously difficult to determine, in England and Wales, figures are collected on racially and religiously motivated offences under section 95 of the Criminal Justice Act 1991. Many theories from many different disciplines have been used to explain hate crime. For example, those of perceived Middle Eastern appearance suffered intense public, enforcement and media attention, plus a rise in victimization, after the Oklahoma City bombing and the bombing of the World Trade Center. We need to be critical of the term 'hate crime' even as an adequate descriptor of 'bias-motivated behaviour'. The key gap in knowledge is the failure to examine the specificity of the crime experiences of the diverse victims of 'bias crime' and the impact on society.