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The use of prosodic categories gives a clearer understanding of the intonation of utterances than the syntactic structure that was assumed in SPE. The prosodic hierarchy includes eight categories from the highest (the phonological utterance) through the intermediate cateories (intonation phrase, phonological phrase, clitic group, phonological word, foot, syllable) to the lowest (the mora). Each unit consists exclusively of units of the next lower category, though certain derived structures are possible with nesting, as when a syllable is adjoined to a foot. In that case the original foot is a constituent of the derived larger foot and a sister to the adjoined syllable. Exemplification of segmental rules that apply in terms of each prosodic category from English and other languages. The three highest units can sometimes be restructured, either broken into smaller units or combined into a larger unit. Summary of the postlexical rules.
Basic principles of generative phonology, as codified in SPE, and later developments within this framework, including metrical phonology, lexical phonology, autosegmental phonology, and underspecification theory. The role of cyclicity. The rise of Optimality Theory and the difficulties encountered in this framework in accounting for opaque relationships.
This is the first full-scale discussion of English phonology since Chomsky and Halle's seminal The Sound Pattern of English (SPE). The book enphasizes the analysis using ordered rules and builds on SPE by incorporating lexical and metrical and prosodic analysis and the insights afforded by Lexical Phonology. It provides clear explanations and logical development throughout, introducing rules individually and then illustrating their interactions. These features make this influential theory accessible to students from a variety of backgrounds in linguistics and phonology. Rule-ordering diagrams summarize the crucial ordering of approximately 85 rules. Many of the interactions result in phonological opacity, where either the effect of a rule is not evident in the output or its conditions of application are not present in the output, due to the operation of later rules. This demonstrates the superiority of a rule-based account over output oriented approaches such as Optimality Theory or pre-Generative structuralist phonology.
The parametric approach to stress includes parameters (1) quantity sensitivity, (2) maximally binary or unbounded feet, (3) left or right branching and left or right strong, (4) direction of stress-tree construction, and (5) the word tree as left or right branching, Exemplification of this approach in Maranungku, Latvian, Warao, Eastern Cheemis, and Latin. Application to English as quantity sensitive with maximally binary feet that are left branching and left strong constructed from right to left with a right-branching word tree. It is necessary to allow some segments and syllables to be extrametrical prior to the application of the rules. Destressing rules are also required, with a convention of stray syllable adjunction. Most stress rules apply cyclically on stratum 1 of the phonology, with some noncyclic on stratum 2. Exceptions are to be accounted for by marking some items exceptions to certain rules; there is no need to assume stress in underlying representations.
The detailed phonology of the word level, defined as the last lexical stratum. This is stratum 2 in English, which, like stratum 1 is word bounded, is structure preserving, and has access to word-internal structure assigned at the same stratum, but unlike stratum 1 is not cyclic and is not subject to the Strict Cycle Condition, allowing rules like Vowel Shift and Velar Softening to apply freely in nonderived contexts. Vowek Shift is a chain shift that affects stressed tense vowels by shifting high vowels to low and raising low vowels to mid and mid vowels to high, without creating any mergers. Some additional rules are required to ensure the final vowel qualities. Some tensing rules apply on stratum 1 or this stratum before Vowel Shift, another applies after Vowel Shift. Vowel reduction produces two or three vowels (depending on dialect), not just schwa as in SPE. Rules for consonants include Velar Softening, Palatalization, Spirantization, with interesting and complex ordering relations. Summary of the stratum 2 rules and their ordering.
Umlaut and ablaut as morphological (rather than phonological) processes, affix order and bracketing paradoxes, subcategorization and stratum ordering, critique of Optimality Theory with respect to its ability to account for major phonological patterns in English, as described in rule terms in the preceding chapters. These include stress, vowel shift, and laxing. Special attention is given to opacity. Opacity presents the same problem to Optimality Theory as it does to pre-Generative structuralist phonology, due to its output orientation. Velar Softening is opaque in medicate (underapplication) and in criticize (overapplication). Various patches proposed to deal with this issue have involved the reintroduction of the intermediate derivational stages that Optimality Theory was designed to eliminate. These patches do not allow for Duke of York derivations such as that which appears in English in the derivation of pressure. The device of stratal Optimality Theory, combining level ordering and constraints differently ranked on different strata, can account for some Duke of York derivations but at the expense of making some postlexical processes lexical.
The syllable and the mora as units of utterances, SPE's treatment without an explicit syllable, approaches to syllables including the syllable boundary approach, the autosegmental approach, the constituent-structure approach, and the moraic approach. Conditions on onsets and codas in various languages. Rules for syllabification in English, and some exceptional patterns.
This longitudinal study examined the influence of child-specific and environmental factors on the development of English receptive vocabulary and grammar by two groups of Danish children: Early Starters (ES) and Late Starters (LS). Age of onset, gender, language aptitude and SES significantly predicted both outcome measures. English competence beliefs (ECB) were positively related to L2 proficiency but only for children with low foreign language classroom anxiety (FLCA), suggesting a dynamic relationship between ECB and FLCA. Extramural audiovisual viewing and reading played a differential role for ES vs. LS whereas extramural English speaking significantly interacted with gender. Finally, child-specific factors explained more of the variance in English proficiency than environmental factors. This finding, which contradicts results obtained in instructed settings (e.g., Sun, Steinkrauss, Tendeiro & de Bot, 2016) but parallels those in naturalistic settings (e.g., Paradis, 2011), supports the special status of English in countries with a high degree of informal contact with English.
Binge Eating Disorder (BED) is characterized by repeatedly losing control over eating behavior and consuming large amounts of food within a short period of time. In later years, a growing body of evidence for effectiveness of internet-based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (iCBT) as treatment for BED has emerged. Regarding the ability to complete a self-help program on the internet, internal self-regulation can be viewed as important.
To qualitatively explore patient motivations for seeking therapy for BED according to intrinsic and extrinsic motivation as well as patient reasons for seeking online therapy.
The research design of this study was qualitatively. The participants were 52 adults suffering from mild to moderate BED. Data consisted of written texts entered by the participants into the online therapy program. The texts addressed the participants’ goals for their treatment course and their motives for seeking online therapy. The texts were analyzed by the means of systematic text condensation.
Pertaining patient motivations for seeking therapy for BED, five main motivations that reached a saturated level in the sample were discovered: wish for control; avoidance of guilt/shame; desire for tools/insights; weight loss; and psychological stress. Participants ranged from one motivational factor to four, no participant had all the motivational factors. Regarding patient reasons for seeking online therapy, the following themes including sub themes were found: online treatment, treatment at home, and flexible treatment.
The results indicate that online therapy for BED may be able to breach some of the barriers there are towards treatment seeking.
Binge eating disorder (BED) is the most prevalent specific eating disorder. It is characterized by recurrent episodes of binge eating and is associated with feelings of shame and a lack of control. Internet-based treatments are gaining increasing attention as a way to reach more patients with evidence based treatments In 2020 we conducted a preliminary analysis on the effectiveness of an internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy treatment project (Jensen ES, Linnet, J, Holmberg TT, Tarp K, Nielsen JH, Lichtenstein MB. Effectiveness of internet-based guided self-help for binge-eating disorder and characteristics of completers versus noncompleters. Int J Eat Disord. 2020;1-6. https://doi.org/10.1002/eat.23384).
This study aims to update the analyses on treatment effect with the patients who have completed treatment in the year following the last data extraction.
The iBED treatment project is a 10-session psychologist guided internet-based self-help program based on cognitive behavioural therapy. When applying for treatment and upon completion patients respond to a survey containing, among other scales, the eating disorder examination-questionnaire (EDE-Q), binge eating disorder-questionnaire (BED-Q) and various sociodemographic questions. Data will be extracted from the treatment project in anonymized form for analyses.
The preliminary analyses were conducted on 36 completers. These showed large standardized effect sizes on both the EDE-Q subscales (Cohens d ranging from .88-1.65) and on the BED-Q (d = 1.38). The updated effectiveness analyses will be presented at the conference. We expect approximately 70-80 patients to have completed treatment at this time.
Results will be discussed and presented at the conference.
A study of 1,558 US households in June 2020 evaluated utilization of online grocery shopping during the COVID-19 pandemic, influences on utilization, and plans for future online grocery shopping. Nearly 55 percent of respondents shopped online in June 2020; 20 percent were first-timers. Cragg model estimates showed influences on online shopping likelihood and frequency included demographics, employment, and prior online shopping. Illness concerns increased likelihood, while food shortage concerns increased frequency of online shopping. A multinomial probit suggested 58 percent respondents planned to continue online grocery shopping regardless of pandemic conditions.
In the mink industry, feed costs are the largest variable expense and breeding for feed efficient animals is warranted. Implementation of selection for feed efficiency must consider the relationships between feed efficiency and the current selection traits BW and litter size. Often, feed intake (FI) is recorded on a cage with a male and a female and there is sexual dimorphism that needs to be accounted for. Study aims were to (1) model group recorded FI accounting for sexual dimorphism, (2) derive genetic residual feed intake (RFI) as a measure of feed efficiency, (3) examine the relationship between feed efficiency and BW in males (BWM) and females (BWF) and litter size at day 21 after whelping (LS21) in Danish brown mink and (4) investigate direct and correlated response to selection on each trait of interest. Feed intake records from 9574 cages, BW records on 16 782 males and 16 875 females and LS21 records on 6446 yearling females were used for analysis. Genetic parameters for FI, BWM, BWF and LS21 were obtained using a multivariate animal model, yielding sex-specific additive genetic variances for FI and BW to account for sexual dimorphism. The analysis was performed in a Bayesian setting using Gibbs sampling, and genetic RFI was obtained from the conditional distribution of FI given BW using genetic regression coefficients. Responses to single trait selection were defined as the posterior distribution of genetic superiority of the top 10% of animals after conditioning on the genetic trends. The heritabilities ranged from 0.13 for RFI in females and LS21 to 0.59 for BWF. Genetic correlations between BW in both sexes and LS21 and FI in both sexes were unfavorable, and single trait selection on BW in either sex showed increased FI in both sexes and reduced litter size. Due to the definition of RFI and high genetic correlation between BWM and BWF, selection on RFI did not significantly alter BW. In addition, selection on RFI in either sex did not affect LS21. Genetic correlation between sexes for FI and BW was high but significantly lower than unity. The high correlations across sex allowed for selection on standardized averages of animals’ breeding values (BVs) for RFI, FI and BW, which yielded selection responses approximately equal to the responses obtained using the sex-specific BVs. The results illustrate the possibility of selecting against RFI in mink with no negative effects on BW and litter size.