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The 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake caused major disruptions in the provision of health care, including that for patients with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) using a nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) device. This study investigated the ability of SDB patients to continue using the nCPAP device in the weeks immediately following the earthquake, whether inability to use the nCPAP device led to symptom relapse, and measures that should be taken to prevent disruptions in nCPAP therapy during future disasters.
If nCPAP devices cannot be used during disasters, SDB patients’ health will be affected negatively.
Within 14 days of the disaster, 1,047 SDB patients completed a questionnaire that collected data regarding ability to use, duration of inability to use, and reasons for inability to use the nCPAP device; symptom relapse while unable to use the nCPAP device; ability to use the nCPAP device use at evacuation sites; and recommendations for improvement of the nCPAP device.
Of the 1,047 patients, 966 (92.3%) had been unable to use the nCPAP device in the days immediately following the earthquake. The most common reason for inability to use the nCPAP device was power failure, followed by anxiety about sleeping at night due to fear of aftershocks, involvement in disaster-relief activities, loss of the nasal CPAP device, and fear of being unable to wake up in case of an emergency. Among the 966 patients, 242 (25.1%) had experienced relapse of symptoms, the most common of which was excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), followed by insomnia, headache, irritability, and chest pain.
Developing strategies for the continuation of nCPAP therapy during disasters is important for providing healthy sleeping environments for SDB patients in emergency situations.
MitoF, NishijimaT, SakuraiS, KizawaT, HosokawaK, TakahashiS, SuwabeA, AkasakaH, KobayashiS. Effects of CPAP Treatment Interruption Due to Disasters: Patients with Sleep-disordered Breathing in the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami Area. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2013;28(6):547-555.
Although most Kawasaki disease with giant coronary aneurysms is asymptomatic, conventional investigations might not identify previous lesions, or all Kawasaki disease with giant aneurysms at risk of future myocardial lesions. We evaluated the long-term histopathology of the myocardium, especially of intramural small vessels in asymptomatic Kawasaki disease with giant aneurysms.
The initial study comprised 16 consecutive Kawasaki patients – male-to-female ratio was 12:4 – aged from 2 to 12 years, and in the subsequent study, the same patients were aged from 4.9 to 16 years. Endomyocardial biopsies were histopathologically evaluated. Microangiopathies, mitochondrial abnormalities, and loss or disarray of myofibrils were compared by electron microscopy.
The incidence of histopathological abnormalities such as degeneration, hypertrophy, and inflammatory cell infiltration was quite high in the initial study, and inflammatory cell infiltration, interstitial fibrosis, and disarray were very noticeable at follow-up biopsies. The area of fibrous tissue was significantly higher in patients administered with intravenous immunoglobulin at follow-up biopsies. Electron microscopy showed microangiopathies including microthrombi within intramural small vessels in some patients at follow-up biopsies. The sites of the coronary aneurysms did not seem to have an impact on the biopsy findings, suggesting that the underlying pathophysiology is related to the original disease process.
Whether the abnormalities were due to direct myocardial injury, chronic ischaemia, repeated small-vessel thrombosis, or other problems associated only with biopsies, is difficult to determine. However, this subgroup had residual abnormal lesions in the myocardium. Follow-up should be more aggressive in this group of patients to identify myocardial damage that could be asymptomatic.
Two types of aluminum-titanium-vanadium ternary intermetallic compounds have been prepared by arc melting under argon atmosphere. Their compositions were nominally AI65Ti25V10 and Al57 Ti 22V21; the numbers represent the molar fractions in mol%. These two alloys stand within the gamma-phase field where the L10 face-centered tetragonal structure is produced. Metallographic structure and mechanical properties have been investigated. It is suggested that vanadium addition to titanium aluminides and titanium trialuminides can enhance their strength.
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