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In this observational study conducted in 2022, 12.3% of patients who shared a room with a patient positive for severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) also had a positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test, either at initial screening or during a 5-day quarantine. Therefore, screening and quarantine are still necessary within hospitals for close-contact inpatients during the SARS-CoV-2 omicron-variant dominant period.
We investigated gender differences in psychosocial determinants that affect hand hygiene (HH) performance among physicians.
The survey included a structured questionnaire with 7 parts: self-assessment of HH execution rate; knowledge, attitude, and behavior regarding HH; internal and emotional motivation for better HH; barriers to HH; need for external reminders; preference for alcohol gel; and embarrassment due to supervision.
The study was conducted across 4 academic referral hospitals in Korea.
Physicians who worked at these hospitals were surveyed.
The survey questionnaire was sent to 994 physicians of the hospitals in July 2018 via email or paper. Differences in psychosocial determinants of HH among physicians were analyzed by gender using an independent t test or the Fisher exact test.
Of the 994 physicians, 201 (20.2%) responded to the survey. Among them, 129 (63.5%) were men. Male physicians identified 4 barriers as significant: time wasted on HH (P = .034); HH is not a habit (P = .004); often forgetting about HH situations (P = .002); and no disadvantage when I do not perform HH (P = .005). Female physicians identified pain and dryness of the hands as a significant obstacle (P = .010), and they had a higher tendency to feel uncomfortable when a fellow employee performed inadequate HH (P = .098). Among the respondents, 26.6% identified diversifying the types of hand sanitizers as their first choice for overcoming barriers to improving HH, followed by providing reminders (15.6%) and soap and paper towels in each hospital room (13.0%).
A significant difference in the barriers to HH existed between male and female physicians. Promoting HH activities could help increase HH compliance.
On 21 October 2000, Kim Dae Jung, the then president of the Republic of Korea (hereafter South Korea) declared boastfully that third Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM) had ended with unprecedented success. In his Chairman's Statement he claimed that all of the twenty-five leaders recognized it as a historic milestone in the evolution of the ASEM process. French President Jacques Chirac, who held then the six-month rotating presidency of the European Union (EU), congratulated South Korea enthusiastically and pointed out that the Seoul meeting had laid a foundation for a balanced development of relations between the world's three major pillars: Asia, Europe and North America. He emphasized that ASEM provided an important momentum towards bringing balance to what he hoped would be a multipolar international system. Kim Dae Jung, reiterated similar remarks in the closing news conference claiming that “through this meeting, Asia and Europe were able to solidify the partnership for prosperity and stability in the new millennium”.
Elsewhere in the South Korean capital, Seoul police congratulated themselves on the handling of the two-day summit, which some had feared could turn into a focal point for anti-globalization protests. There were indeed unprecedented scuffles during several anti-ASEM protests and marches by thousands of students, participants from civil society and trade unionists, watched by thousands of baton-wielding riot police. With the benefit of hindsight it could be said that the parallel summit held along with ASEM 3 marked another historic milestone for the anti-globalization movement. Musing on the ASEM, it could easily be asked: “Is it this country that won the Nobel Peace Prize?” These striking images outside the ASEM venue, contrasted with those within, where leaders were feeling more relaxed to talk about prosperity and stability in Europe and Asia in a festive atmosphere occasioned by President Kim's winning of the Nobel Peace Prize, remind us of the contemporary history of South Korea. Authoritarian governments have dominated South Korea since independence in 1945 and human rights concerns were ignored under the name of prosperity and stability for more than twenty-five years.
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