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Children and young people have the right to be healthy and to maximise their opportunities for a fulfilling life. This is enshrined in the 1989 United Nations (UN) Convention on the Rights of the Child, which articulates children’s rights to health, safety, wellbeing and citizenship (UN, 1989). A socio-ecological framework is useful in recognising the multi-level influences on health and wellbeing including family and sociocultural contexts; school and community settings; and the macrophysical, political and economic environments that alter living conditions and opportunities for health-promoting behaviours. Children’s direct interaction with these different levels of influence increases progressively over time as they mature, but is mediated throughout by adult guardians. This chapter explores socio-ecological influences on child health and wellbeing by examining overweight/obesity prevention, oral health, the experiences of children in same-sex parent families and mental health. In doing so, opportunities to reduce child health inequalities and to increase resilience and quality of life are discussed.