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The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic in late 2019 has led to many changes such as reduced human activities and effects on the environment. There is no big picture of the effects of pandemics on the environment using related evidence.
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on environmental health.
A systematic search of English language studies was performed in major electronic databases; Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, and Google scholar web search engine from December 2019 to February 2022. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) standard guidelines were used to follow up the review process. finally 58 articles entered the review procedure.
The results of indicate a significant reduction of air pollutants and improved air quality. It improved the water quality of some rivers, canals, and seas during the lockdown of the COVID-19 pandemic. The effects of this disease on the environment cannot be fully described yet.
In the short term, the amount of air, water, and coastal pollution has been reduced. few studies have examined the effects of pandemics on the environment in the long run, which paves the way for more researches.
Safe interaction and inherent compliance with soft robots have motivated the evolution of soft rehabilitation robots. Among these, soft robotic gloves are known as an effective tool for stroke rehabilitation. This research proposed a pneumatically actuated soft robotic for index finger rehabilitation. The proposed system consists of a soft bending actuator and a sensing system equipped with four inertial measurement unit sensors to generate kinematic data of the index finger. The designed sensing system can estimate the range of motion (ROM) of the finger’s joints by combining angular velocity and acceleration values with the standard Kalman filter. The sensing system is evaluated regarding repeatability and reliability through static and dynamic experiments in the first step. The root mean square error attained in static and dynamic states are 2
, sequentially, representing an efficient function of the fusion algorithm. In the next step, experimental models have been developed to analyze and predict a soft actuator’s behavior in free and constrained states using the sensing system’s data. Thus, parametric system identification methods, artificial neural network—multilayer perceptron (ANN-MLP), and artificial neural network—radial basis function algorithms (ANN-RBF) have been compared to achieve an optimal model. The results reveal that ANN models, particularly RBF ones, can predict the actuator behavior with reasonable accuracy in the free and constrained state (<1
). Hence, the need for intricate analytical modeling and material characterization will be eliminated, and controlling the soft actuator will be more practical. Besides, it assesses the ROM and finger functionality.
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