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As a water-soluble extracellular β-glucan produced by Agrobacterium sp. ZX09, Salecan has an excellent toxicological profile and exerts multiple physiological effects. The aims of the present study were to investigate the protective effects of a Salecan diet in the well-defined dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) model of experimental murine colitis and to elucidate the mechanism involved in its effects with special attention being paid to its effect on the production of TNF-α, a primary mediator involved in the inflammatory response. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a diet supplemented with either 4 or 8 % Salecan for 26 d and DSS was administered to induce acute colitis during the last 5 d of the experimental period. Several clinical and inflammatory parameters as well as mRNA expression of TNF-α and Dectin-1 were evaluated. The results indicated that the dietary incorporation of Salecan attenuated the severity of DSS colitis as evidenced by the decreased disease activity index, reduced severity of anaemia, attenuated changes in colon architecture and reduced colonic myeloperoxidase activity. This protection was associated with the down-regulation of TNF-α mRNA levels, which might derive from its ability to increase Dectin-1 mRNA levels. In conclusion, the present study suggests that Salecan contributes to the reduction of colonic damage and inflammation in mice with DSS-induced colitis and holds promise as a new, effective nutritional supplement in the management of inflammatory bowel disease.
The product and direct role of the rssC gene of Serratia marcescens is unknown. For unraveling the role of the rssC gene, atomic force microscopy has been used to identify the surfaces of intact S. marcescens wild-type CH-1 cells and rssC mutant CH-1ΔC cells. The detailed surface topographies were directly visualized, and quantitative measurements of the physical properties of the membrane structures were provided. CH-1 and CH-1ΔC cells were observed before and after treatment with lysozyme, and their topography-related parameters, e.g., a valley-to-peak distance, mean height, surface roughness, and surface root-mean-square values, were defined and compared. The data obtained suggest that the cellular surface topography of mutant CH-1ΔC becomes rougher and more precipitous than that of wild-type CH-1 cells. Moreover, it was found that, compared with native wild-type CH-1, the cellular surface topography of lysozyme-treated CH-1 was not changed profoundly. The product of the rssC gene is thus predicted to be mainly responsible for fatty-acid biosynthesis of the S. marcescens outer membrane. This study represents the first direct observation of the structural changes in membranes of bacterial mutant cells and offers a new prospect for predicting gene expression in bacterial cells.
In this paper, an integrated multifunctional biochip detection system, which we call “OBMorph“, are presented. This unique system integrates several optoelectronic-based biological diagnostic tools such as an ellipsometer, a laser Doppler vibrometer/interferometer, a SPR (surface plasmon resonance) analyzer, an interference microscope, a photon tunneling microscope, an optical coherence tomography unit and a confocal scanning microscope. This OBMorph system, useful as a powerful optical metrology diagnostic tool, can be used at the beginning of sensor chip fabrication, on to signal detecting and monitoring, and to the final biological analysis. The principles and experimental results of this multifunctional biochip detection OBMorph system are presented.
In addition, an innovative SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) virus denaturing chemical compound that was derived using the OBMorph system to study biolinker fabrication in biochips, are discussed. Several testing strategies are presented herein which proves the effectiveness of the new chemical compound, biochip technology in denaturing the SARS virus. Analysis under an atomic force microscope confirms the actual breaking down of the virus treated by the chemical compound. The fundamentals of how the chemical compound denatures the virus and renders it toxicity useless, is based on principles of nanotechnology and bio-mechanics. Results from preliminary studies show that this denaturing principle can be also effective against other deadly viruses and even bacteria. Some design strategies and innovative working mechanisms derived from study of this chemical compound which can denature the SARS-CoV, are also discussed.
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