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Residents who lived near the Fukushima Power Plant accident were forced to change their lifestyle after the 2011 accident. This study aimed to elucidate the association of resident lifestyle and psychological factors with onset of hepatobiliary enzyme abnormalities (HEA) after the accident.
This longitudinal study included 15705 residents who underwent a comprehensive health check, as well as a mental health and lifestyle survey between June 2011 and March 2012. Follow-up surveys were conducted between June, 2012 and March 2018. Risk factors for new HEA onset were evaluated using the Cox proportional hazards model, moreover, population attributable risks for new HEA onset were calculated.
HEA developed in 29.7% of subjects. In addition to metabolic factors such as overweight, hyperglycemia, and hyperlipidemia; there were differences in alcohol intake, evacuation, unemployment, educational background, and psychological distress between subjects with and without HEA onset. After we adjusted for potential confounding factors, an association of being overweight, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, as well as alcohol consumption, evacuation, and psychological distress with increased risk of HEA onset was realized. Among these identified risk factors, evacuation accounted for the greatest share.
Metabolic characteristics and disaster-related lifestyle aspects, including mental status, were risk factors for HAE onset after the Fukushima Power Plant accident.
This study evaluated the association between maternal magnesium intake (MMI) and childhood wheezing incidence in 3-year-old offspring. We hypothesised that higher MMI imparts anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects that decrease childhood wheezing incidence in offspring. Data of 79 907 women (singleton pregnancy, ≥ 22 weeks) from the Japan Environment and Children’s Study (enrolled between 2011 and 2014) were analysed. Participants were categorised into quintiles of MMI (< 148·00, 148·00–187·99, 188·00–228·99, 229·00–289·99 and ≥ 290·00 mg/d), quintiles of adjusted MMI for daily energy intake (aMMI) (< 0·107, 0·107–0·119, 0·120–0·132, 0·133–0·149 and ≥ 0·150 mg/kcal) and MMI levels either below or above the ideal value (< 310·00 or ≥ 310·00 mg/d). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to calculate OR for the incidence of childhood wheezing in offspring among participants in each MMI category, with the lowest MMI group considered the reference group. Maternal demographic, socio-economic, medical and other nutrient intake backgrounds were considered potential confounding factors. The adjusted OR (aOR) for childhood wheezing in the offspring of women with the highest MMI was 1·09 (95 % CI, 1·00, 1·20), whereas that calculated based on aMMI categories and offspring of women with above-ideal MMI levels remained unchanged. The highest MMI was associated with slightly increased childhood wheezing incidence in the offspring. MMI during pregnancy had an insignificant clinical impact on this incidence; moreover, modifying MMI would not significantly improve childhood wheezing incidence in offspring. Therefore, further studies should clarify the association between other prenatal factors and childhood wheezing incidence in offspring.
Maternal prenatal psychological distress, including depression and anxiety, may affect offspring’s motor/cognitive development. However, research findings have been inconsistent. We used a dataset from the Japan Environment and Children’s Study to evaluate associations between maternal six-item Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6) scores and motor/cognitive development among offspring at two years of age. Their offspring’s motor/cognitive development was assessed using the Kyoto Scale of Psychological Development 2001. Records for 1859 male and 1817 female offspring were analyzed. The maternal K6 was administered twice during pregnancy: at a median of 14.6 weeks (M-T1) and 27.3 weeks (M-T2) of gestation. Multiple regression analysis was performed with the group with K6 scores ≤4 at both M-T1 and M-T2 as a reference. In the group with K6 scores ≥5 at both M-T1 and M-T2, male offspring had significantly lower developmental quotients (DQ) in the posture-motor area (partial regression coefficient [B]: −3.68, 95% confidence interval [CI]: −5.92 to −1.44) and language-social area (B: −1.93; 95%CI: −3.73 to −0.12), while female offspring had a lower DQ for the language-social area (B: −1.95; 95%CI: −3.73 to −0.17). In those with K6 scores ≥5 only at M-T1 or M-T2, male and female offspring did not differ significantly in DQ for any area. Continuous maternal psychological distress from the first to the second half of pregnancy was associated with lower motor and verbal cognitive development in male offspring and lower verbal cognitive development in female offspring at 2 years compared with the group without persistent maternal prenatal psychological distress.
Maternal prenatal psychological distress, which includes depression and anxiety, affects the onset of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, there is no consistent knowledge regarding at which term during pregnancy psychological distress affects the risk of ASD among children. We used a dataset obtained from the Japan Environment and Children’s Study, which is a nationwide prospective birth cohort study, to evaluate the association between the six-item Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6) and ASD among 3-year-old children. A total of 78,745 children were analyzed, and 355 of them were diagnosed with ASD (0.45%). The maternal K6 was administered twice during pregnancy: at a median of 15.1 weeks (M-T1) and at that of 27.4 weeks (M-T2) of gestation. Multivariate logistic regression analyses demonstrated that the group with a maternal K6 score of ≥5 at both M-T1 and M-T2 was significantly associated with ASD among the children (adjusted odds ratio, 1.440; 95% confidence interval, 1.104–1.877) compared to the group with a score of ≤4 at both M-T1 and M-T2. There was no significant difference between the group with a score of ≥5 only at M-T1 or M-T2 and that with a score of ≤4 at both M-T1 and M-T2. In conclusion, from the first to the second half of pregnancy, continuous maternal psychological distress was associated with ASD among 3-year-old children. Contrarily, in the group without persistent maternal psychological distress during pregnancy, there was no significant association.
We evaluated the association between maternal prenatal folic acid supplementation/dietary folate intake and motor and cognitive development in 2-year-old offspring using data from the Japan Environment and Children’s Study database. Neurodevelopment of 2-year-old offspring were evaluated using the Kyoto Scale of Psychological Development 2001. In total, data of 3839 offspring were analysed. For folic acid supplementation, a multiple regression analysis showed that offspring of mothers who started using folic acid supplements before conception had a significantly lower developmental quotient (DQ) in the postural-motor DQ area than offspring of mothers who did not use them at any time throughout their pregnancy (partial regression coefficient (B) −2·596, 95 % CI −4·738, −0·455). Regarding daily dietary folate intake from preconception to early pregnancy, a multiple regression analysis showed that the group with ≥ 200 µg had a significantly higher DQ in the language-social area than the group with <200 µg. The DQ was higher in the ≥ 400 µg group (B 2·532, 95 % CI 0·201, 4·863) than the 200 to <400 µg group (B 1·437, 95 % CI 0·215, 2·660). In conclusion, our study showed that maternal adequate dietary folate intake from preconception to early pregnancy has a beneficial association with verbal cognition development in 2-year-old offspring. On the other hand, mothers who started using folic acid supplements before conception had an inverse association with motor development in 2-year-old offspring. There were no details on the amount of folic acid in the supplements used and frequency of use. Therefore, further studies are required.
The jungles of Linyun and Longlin Autonomous Prefecture, located in the heart of the southwestern Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of China, are home to the oldest tea trees (Camellia sinensis) in the world. In the absence of regular annual rings, radiocarbon (14C) dating is one of the most powerful tools that can assist in the determination of the ages and growth rates of these plants. In this work, cores were extracted from large ancient tea trees in a central Longlin rain forest; extraction of carbon was performed with an automated sample preparation system. The 14C levels in the tree cores were measured using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) at the University of Tsukuba. These measurements indicated that contrary to conventional views, the ages of trees in these forests range up to ~700 years, and the growth rate of this species is notably slow, exhibiting a long-term radial growth rate of 0.039±0.006 cm/yr. It was demonstrated that 14C analyses provide accurate determination of ages and growth rates for subtropical wild tea trees.